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Reproduction

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Phasianid mating systems are variable depending upon species. Some taxa are described as monogamous with the pair bond lasting the duration of the breeding season Generally monogamous species are sexually monomorphic in plumage coloration and size, or slightly dimorphic. Some taxa are polygynous with a pair bond evident until incubation of the eggs. Males of these taxa are often brighter or larger than females. Polygynandry has also been observed in some taxa, with pair bonds evident to copulation. In these taxa males are generally more brightly colored and often somewhat larger than females. In some species males gather on leks to display for females. Courtship behaviors may include tid-bitting (food-showing), strutting, waltzing, and wing-lowering. Sometimes elaborate lateral or frontal displays take place, in which males expose the most colorful parts of their plumage, which may include tail spreading and displaying of swollen wattles. Socially dominant males may copulate more frequently and more successfully than males lower in the social hierarchy. Status in the male hierarchy may be related to size, coloration and relative display characteristics.

Mating System: monogamous ; polygynous ; polygynandrous (promiscuous)

Many phasianids breed seasonally, usually coinciding with springtime for temperate species and the wet season for tropical species. Courtship in some species entails elaborate visual displays in which males may strut about displaying brightly colored plumage or wattles. Sometimes males congregate on leks to display for females. Females appear to select the nest site and likely construct the nest. Nests are usually shallow, often lined with grass and leaves. Nests are often located on the ground, but some species use tussocks or trees. Female nest building behavior entails picking up material and tossing it backwards. Egg coloration varies, and may be white, olive, brown or spotted. Clutch size varies by species, ranging from 2 to 20 eggs. In some species egg-dumping may occur. Incubation begins with the last egg laid and is variable by species, lasting from 18 to 29 days. Chicks are precocial and are covered with down and first primaries or secondaries upon hatching. Chicks can walk, run and forage shortly after hatching, yet stay close to the female during the first week or two. Within two weeks chicks may begin to fly and to disperse, but will still brood with the female. Depending on the species, broods may dissolve sometime between six to sixteen weeks. Adult plumage may be attained at one to two years and sexual maturity from one to five years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

In phasianids, it appears that females alone incubate, beginning with the last egg laid and continuing for 19 to 29 days. Females may brood chicks for as long as 16 weeks. In some species males help rear young by providing defense of nest or brood. In other species males appear to provide no parental care. Parents and offspring of some species join coveys or flocks at the end of the breeding season.

Parental Investment: precocial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

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Howard, L. . "Phasianidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Phasianidae.html
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Behavior

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Visual signaling may occur through morphological features or behavioral interactions. Some phasianids have brightly colored skin on the face or neck, wattles or elaborately structured and brightly colored plumage. Males appear to display these features during courtship and during agonistic male-male interactions. Posturing during threat displays may entail upright lateral or frontal positioning while submission may involve a lowering of the body to the substrate.

Phasianid vocalizations range from the familiar crowing of the domestic fowl to loud screams to clucking or hissing. Crowing may be individually identifiable signals for territory defense or mate attraction. Sustained raucous screams may be given in response to alarm. Threat vocalizations are low in frequency and submission appears to be accompanied by hissing. Clucking may serve as a brood gathering vocalization. Phasianids may also produce acoustic signals by rattling tail feathers or by drumming in flight as known from some grouse.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Howard, L. . "Phasianidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Phasianidae.html
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Conservation Status

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The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species includes 68 phasianid species. Two species are listed as extinct: double-banded argus (Argusianus bipunctatus) and New Zealand quail (Coturnix novaezelandiae). Habitat loss and hunting are among the major threats identified for this group.

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Howard, L. . "Phasianidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Phasianidae.html
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Comprehensive Description

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Phasianidae is a diverse group comprising over 50 genera and over 214 species. Phasianid galliforms are commonly known as grouse, turkeys, pheasants, partridges, francolins, and Old World quail. Phasianids are small to large, blunt-winged terrestrial birds. Some species are noted for elaborate courtship displays in which males strut about, displaying colorful plumage and wattles, sometimes accompanied by an expansive spreading of the tail feathers. Some members of this group are important game birds and others, like domestic chickens (derived from Gallus gallus), are bred and reared for human consumption.

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Howard, L. . "Phasianidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Phasianidae.html
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Benefits

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Phasianids may cause damage to some agricultural crops (maize, barley, wheat, millet) by foraging for seeds and shoots on cultivated lands.

Negative Impacts: crop pest

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Howard, L. . "Phasianidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Phasianidae.html
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Benefits

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Phasianids are economically important to humans. Phasianids such as grouse, quail, partridges, pheasants and turkeys are important game birds that are hunted regularly in all parts of the world. Some phasianids, such as common fowl (derived from Gallus gallus), have been domesticated and are reared for human consumption of meat and eggs and for "fancy". Most species are hunted primarily for food, although feathers of some species have been collected for ornamentation and clothing manufacture. Sometimes bones have been used in the manufacture of various tools.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; food ; body parts are source of valuable material; ecotourism ; produces fertilizer

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Howard, L. . "Phasianidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Phasianidae.html
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Associations

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Phasianids may serve an ecosystem role as seed dispersers or seed predators.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Howard, L. . "Phasianidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Phasianidae.html
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Trophic Strategy

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Food habits of phasianids are varied, consisting of a mixture of plant and animal material. Plant materials include: grains, seeds, roots, tubers, nuts, fruits, berries and foliage. Animal materials include: arthropods (Ephemerida, Orthoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera), mollusks, worms, lizards, and snakes.

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates, Insectivore ); herbivore (Folivore , Frugivore , Granivore ); omnivore

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Howard, L. . "Phasianidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Phasianidae.html
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Distribution

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Phasianids are distributed globally except for polar regions and some oceanic islands.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Introduced , Native ); palearctic (Native ); oriental (Native ); ethiopian (Introduced , Native ); neotropical (Introduced , Native ); australian (Introduced , Native )

Other Geographic Terms: cosmopolitan

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Howard, L. . "Phasianidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Phasianidae.html
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Habitat

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Phasianids inhabit a diversity of habitats including rainforests, scrub forests, deserts, woodlands, bamboo thickets, cultivated lands, alpine meadows, tundra and forest edges. Some species may be found up to 5000 m above sea level, sometimes more.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: tundra ; taiga ; desert or dune ; savanna or grassland ; chaparral ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest ; mountains

Other Habitat Features: urban ; suburban ; agricultural

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Howard, L. . "Phasianidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Phasianidae.html
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Life Expectancy

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Some species in the wild may live for five to eight years (grouse) whereas some captive phasianids have survived for 30 years (Great Argus).

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Morphology

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Phasianids are small to large, ranging from 500 g to 9.5 kg in weight. Phasianids have short, rounded wings. Tail length is variable by species, appearing almost tailless in some to up to one meter in others. Plumage coloration ranges from cryptic to dark to brightly -patterned. The legs are sturdy and one or more spurs may be present on the tarsus. Toes are short with blunt claws and the hallux is raised. Phasianids may have crests, or bare skin on the head or neck, or wattles. Physical characteristics may be sexually monomorphic or dimorphic depending on species. Some phasianid males are larger, more brightly colored, have longer tails or more elaborate ornamentation than females.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; sexes colored or patterned differently; male more colorful; sexes shaped differently; ornamentation

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Associations

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Mammalian predators of phasianids include: foxes, dogs, cats, opossums, raccoons, skunks, rodents, fishers, and mongooses. Avian predators include raptors and corvids. Reptilian predators are largely snakes.

Known Predators:

  • canids (Canidae)
  • small to medium sized cats (Felidae)
  • opossums (Didelphidae)
  • raccoons (Procyon)
  • skunks (Mephitidae)
  • fishers (Martes)
  • weasels (Mustela)
  • mongooses (Herpestes)
  • hawks and eagle (Accipitridae)
  • falcons (Falconidae)
  • large owls (Bubo)
  • corvids (Corvidae)
  • snakes (Serpentes)

Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic

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Brief Summary

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Pheasants and rails live and nest primarily on the ground. In general, they are somewhat lumpy birds that can't fly far or high. Should they try, it is obvious how hard they need to work. When detecting danger, they prefer to hide in the bushes.
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Phasianidae

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The Phasianidae are a family of heavy, ground-living birds, which includes pheasants, partridges, junglefowl, chickens, turkeys, Old World quail, and peafowl. The family includes many of the most popular gamebirds.[1] The family is a large one, and is occasionally broken up into two subfamilies, the Phasianinae, and the Perdicinae. Sometimes, additional families and birds are treated as part of this family. For example, the American Ornithologists' Union includes the Tetraonidae (grouse), Numididae (guineafowl), and Meleagrididae (turkeys) as subfamilies in Phasianidae.

Description

Phasianids are terrestrial. They range in weight from 43 g (1.5 oz) in the case of the king quail to 6 kg (13 lb) in the case of the Indian peafowl. If turkeys are included, rather than classified as a separate family, then the considerably heavier wild turkey reaches a maximum weight of more than 17 kg (37 lb). Length in this taxonomic family can vary from 12.5 cm (4.9 in) in the king quail up to 300 cm (120 in) (including elongated tail streamers) in green peafowl, thus they beat even the true parrots in length diversity within a family of birds.[1][2] Generally, sexual dimorphism is seen in size, with males tending to be larger than females. They are generally plump, with broad, relatively short wings and strong legs. Many have a spur on their legs, a feature shared only with guineafowl and turkeys. The bill is short and generally strong, particularly in species that dig for food. Males of the larger species often have brightly coloured plumage, as well as facial ornaments such as wattles or crests.

Distribution and habitat

The Phasianidae are mostly an Old World family, with a distribution that includes most of Europe and Asia (except the far north), all of Africa except the driest deserts, and south into much of eastern Australia and (formerly) New Zealand. The Meleagridinae (turkeys) are native to the New World, while the Tetraoninae (grouse) are circumpolar. The greatest diversity of species is in Southeast Asia and Africa. The Congo peacock is specific to the African Congo. The subfamily Perdicinae has a much more widespread distribution. Within their range, they occupy almost every available habitat except for the boreal forests and tundra.

The family is generally sedentary and resident, although some quails undertake long migrations. Several species in the family have been widely introduced around the world, particularly pheasants, which have been introduced to Europe, Australia, and the Americas, specifically for hunting purposes. Captive populations of peacocks and chickens have also escaped (or been released) and become feral.

Behaviour and ecology

The pheasants and partridges have a varied diet, with foods taken ranging from purely vegetarian diets of seeds, leaves, fruits, tubers, and roots, to small animals including insects, insect grubs, and even small reptiles. Most species either specialise in feeding on plant matter or are predatory, although the chicks of most species are insectivorous.

In addition to the variation in diet, a considerable amount of variation exists in breeding strategies among the Phasianidae. Compared to birds in general, a large number of species do not engage in monogamy (the typical breeding system of most birds). The francolins of Africa and some partridges are reportedly monogamous, but polygamy has been reported in the pheasants and junglefowl, some quail, and the breeding displays of peacocks have been compared to those of a lek. Nesting usually occurs on the ground; only the tragopans nest higher up in stumps of bushes. Nests can vary from mounds of vegetation to slight scrapes in the ground. As many as 18 eggs can be laid in the nest, although 7-12 is the more usual number, with smaller numbers in tropical species. Incubation is almost always performed by the female only, and lasts from 14–30 days depending on the species.

Relationship with humans

Several species of pheasant and partridge are extremely important to humans. The red junglefowl of Southeast Asia is the wild ancestor of the domesticated chicken, the most important bird in agriculture. Ring-necked pheasants, several partridge and quail species and some francolins have been widely introduced and managed as game birds for hunting. Several species are threatened by human activities.

Systematics and evolution

The clade Phasianidae is the largest of the branch Galliformes, comprising more than 150 species. This group includes the pheasants and partridges, junglefowl chickens, quail, and peafowl. Turkeys and grouse have also been recognized as having their origins in the pheasant- and partridge-like birds.

Until the early 1990s, this family was broken up into two subfamilies: the Phasianinae, including pheasants, tragopans, junglefowls, and peafowls;[3] and the Perdicinae, including partridges, Old World quails, and francolins.[4] Molecular phylogenies have shown that these two subfamilies are not each monophyletic but actually constitute only one lineage with one common ancestor.[5][6] For example, some partridges (genus Perdix) are more closely affiliated to pheasants, whereas Old World quails and partridges from the genus Alectoris are closer to junglefowls.[5][6]

The earliest fossil records of phasianids date to the late Oligocene epoch, about 30 million years ago.[7]

A tentative list of the subfamilies of Phasianidae was:[5] and extinct genus assignment follows the Mikko's Phylogeny Archive[8] and Paleofile.com websites.[9][10]

Phylogeny

Living Galliformes based on the work by John Boyd.[11]

.mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}   Rollulinae

?Melanoperdix

   

?Rhizothera

   

Xenoperdix

     

ArborophilaArboricolaGingicaKeulemans white background.jpg

     

RollulusRollulus rouloul male 1838 white background.jpg

   

CaloperdixCaloperdix oculeus Hardwicke white background.jpg

          Pavoninae

Tropicoperdix

Tetraogallini    

AmmoperdixAmmoperdix griseogularis 1849 white background.jpg

       

SynoicusCoturnix novaezelandiae white background.jpg

   

ExcalfactoriaExcalfactoria chinensis.jpg

       

AnurophasisSnow Mountains Quail white background.JPG

   

MargaroperdixMargaroperdix madagarensis 1838 white background.jpg

   

Coturnix

             

TetraogallusTetraogallus caucasicus white background.jpg

   

AlectorisAlectoris chukar hm white background.jpg

       

PternistisFrancolinusTetraoninusKeulemans flipped.jpg

     

OphrysiaOphrysia superciliosa white background.jpg

   

PerdiculaPerdicula erythrorhyncha hm white background.jpg

            Gallini    

BambusicolaBirdsAsiaJohnGoVIGoul white background.jpg

   

GallusRed Junglefowl by George Edward Lodge white background.png

       

ScleroptilaFrancolinusCrawshayiKeulemans white background.jpg

     

PeliperdixFrancolinusAlbogularisSmit white background.jpg

   

FrancolinusFrancolinus francolinus hm white background.jpg

          Pavonini    

RheinardiaBulletin de la Société nationale d'acclimatation de France white background.jpg

   

ArgusianusBorneanArgusThorburn white background.jpg

       

AfropavoGalloperdix spadicea spadicea Hardwicke white background.jpg

   

PavoBlauwe pauw white background.jpeg

      Polyplectronini

Haematortyx

     

Galloperdix

   

PolyplectronPolyplectron napoleonis 1838 white background.jpg

            Phasianinae Ithaginini

IthaginisIthaginis cruentus 1838 white background.jpg

    Lophophorini

TragopanCeriornisBlythiiKeulemans white background.jpg

     

?LerwaLerwa nivicola white background.jpg

   

TetraophasisTetraophasis-obscurus white background.jpg

   

LophophorusLophophorus impejanus male 1838 white background.jpg

        Phasianini

PerdixRapphöna, Iduns kokbok white background.jpg

     

SyrmaticusSyrmaticus reevesii 1838 flipped.jpg

       

PhasianusFMIB 42017 Mongolian Pheasant white background.jpeg

   

ChrysolophusCuvier-61-Faisan doré.jpg

       

Lophura

     

CatreusBirdsAsiaJohnGoVIIGoul Catreus wallichii.jpg

   

CrossoptilonCrossoptilon auritum white background.jpg

            Tetraonini

PucrasiaPucrasia macrolopha xanthospila white background.jpg

     

MeleagrisNederlandsche vogelen (KB) - Meleagris gallopavo (white background).jpg

     

Bonasa

     

Tetrastes

    Centrocercina

Centrocercus

     

Dendragapus

   

Tympanuchus

      Tetraonina

Lagopus

     

Falcipennis

     

Canachites

   

Tetrao

                           

References

  1. ^ a b McGowan, P. J. K. (1994). "Family Phasianidae (Pheasants and Partridges)". In del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Handbook of the Birds of the World. 2. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. pp. 434–479. ISBN 84-87334-15-6..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Harper, D. 1986. Pet Birds for Home and Garden. London: Salamander Books Ltd.
  3. ^ Johnsgard, P. A. (1986). The Pheasants of the World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ Johnsgard, P. A. (1988). The Quails, Partridges, and Francolins of the World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  5. ^ a b c Kimball, R. T.; Braun, E. L.; Zwartjes, P. W.; Crowe, T. M.; Ligon, J. D. (1999). "A molecular phylogeny of the pheasants and partridges suggests that these lineages are not monophyletic". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 11 (1): 38–54. doi:10.1006/mpev.1998.0562. PMID 10082609.
  6. ^ a b Kimball, Rebecca T.; Braun, Edward L. (2014). "Does more sequence data improve estimates of galliform phylogeny? Analyses of a rapid radiation using a complete data matrix". PeerJ. 2: e361. doi:10.7717/peerj.361. PMC 4006227. PMID 24795852.
  7. ^ Mayr, G.; Poshmann, M.; Wuttke, M. (2006). "A nearly complete skeleton of the fossil galliform bird Palaeortyx from the late Oligocene of Germany". Acta Ornithologica. 41 (2): 129–135. doi:10.3161/000164506780143852.
  8. ^ Haaramo, Mikko (2007). "Aves [Avialae]– basal birds". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  9. ^ "Taxonomic lists- Aves". Paleofile.com (net, info). Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  10. ^ Çınar, Ümüt (November 2015). "02 → Gᴀʟʟᴏᴀɴsᴇʀᴀᴇ : Gᴀʟʟɪfᴏʀᴍᴇs". English Names of Birds. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  11. ^ Boyd, John (2007). "GALLIFORMES- Landfowl". John Boyd's website. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
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Phasianidae: Brief Summary

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The Phasianidae are a family of heavy, ground-living birds, which includes pheasants, partridges, junglefowl, chickens, turkeys, Old World quail, and peafowl. The family includes many of the most popular gamebirds. The family is a large one, and is occasionally broken up into two subfamilies, the Phasianinae, and the Perdicinae. Sometimes, additional families and birds are treated as part of this family. For example, the American Ornithologists' Union includes the Tetraonidae (grouse), Numididae (guineafowl), and Meleagrididae (turkeys) as subfamilies in Phasianidae.

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