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Brief Summary

    Banksia sect. Banksia: Brief Summary
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    Banksia sect. Banksia is one of four sections of Banksia subgenus Banksia. It contains those species of subgenus Banksia with straight or sometimes curved but not hooked styles. These species all have cylindrical inflorescences and usually exhibit a bottom-up sequence of flower anthesis. It is a widely distributed section, with taxa occurring in both the south west and east coastal distributions of the genus.

    Banksia sect. Banksia is further divided into nine series:

    Salicinae is one of the most primitive Banksia series; it contains 11 species, all highly variable; Grandes contains 2 species whose leaves have large prominent triangular lobes; Banksia contains 8 species with smooth or toothed leaves; Crocinae contains 4 species with woolly orange flowers; Prostratae contains 6 species that grow as prostrate shrubs; Cyrtostylis contains 13 species with unusually slender flowers; Tetragonae contains 3 species whose flower spikes hang down; Bauerinae contains a single species Banksia baueri; Quercinae contains 2 species that differ from other species in the section by some unusual anatomical features of their flowers, and their top-down sequence of anthesis.
    Banksia ser. Banksia: Brief Summary
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    Banksia ser. Banksia is a valid botanic name for a series of Banksia. As an autonym, it necessarily contains the type species of Banksia, B. serrata (Saw Banksia). Within this constraint, however, there have been various circumscriptions.

    Banksia subg. Banksia: Brief Summary
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    Banksia subg. Banksia is a valid botanic name for a subgenus of Banksia. As an autonym, it necessarily contains the type species of Banksia, B. serrata (Saw Banksia). Within this constraint, however, there have been various circumscriptions.

    Banksia subg. Isostylis: Brief Summary
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    Banksia subg. Isostylis is a subgenus of Banksia. It contains three closely related species, all of which occur only in Southwest Western Australia. Members of subgenus Isostylis have dome-shaped flower heads that are superficially similar to those of B. ser. Dryandra, but structurally more like reduced versions of the "flower spikes" characteristic of most other Banksia taxa.

    There are three species of Banksia subg. Isostylis, B. ilicifolia (Holly-leaved Banksia), B. cuneata (Matchstick Banksia) and B. oligantha (Wagin Banksia). B. ilicifolia is widely distributed and relatively common, but the other two species are rare and threatened.

    Banksia subg. Spathulatae: Brief Summary
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    Banksia subg. Spathulatae is a valid botanic name for a subgenus of Banksia. It was published in 2007 by Austin Mast and Kevin Thiele, and defined as containing all those Banksia species having spathulate (spoon-shaped) cotyledons. The name was published to accommodate forthcoming changes to the taxonomic arrangement of Banksia, based on the DNA sequence analyses of Austin Mast and others, which suggested a phylogeny for Banksia very greatly different from the accepted taxonomic arrangement. They found Banksia to be paraphyletic with respect to Dryandra, and that these two genera were best split into two clades, one with beaked follicles and non-spathulate cotyledons, the other with unbeaked follicles and spathulate cotyledons. Initially this clade was informally named "/Cryptostomata", in reference to the stomates, which are sunken with constricted entrances. Accordingly, in 2007 Mast and Thiele initiated a rearrangement by transferring Dryandra to Banksia, and publishing B. subg. Spathulatae for the species having spathulate cotyledons. The type species of Spathulatae was given as B. integrifolia (coast banksia), but no further details have been given. Mast and Thiele have foreshadowed publishing a full arrangement once DNA sampling of Dryandra is complete.

    Banksia subser. Banksia: Brief Summary
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    Banksia subser. Banksia is a valid botanic name for a subseries of Banksia. It was first used by Kevin Thiele in 1996, although as an autonym it is not considered to have been published per se. It was discarded by Alex George in 1999.

    Banksia: Brief Summary
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    For other uses, see Banksia (disambiguation).

    Banksia, commonly known as Australian honeysuckles, are a genus of around 170 species in the plant family Proteaceae. These Australian wildflowers and popular garden plants are easily recognised by their characteristic flower spikes and fruiting "cones" and heads. Banksias range in size from prostrate woody shrubs to trees up to 30 metres tall. They are found in a wide variety of landscapes; sclerophyll forest, (occasionally) rainforest, shrubland, and some more arid landscapes, though not in Australia's deserts.

    Heavy producers of nectar, banksias are a vital part of the food chain in the Australian bush. They are an important food source for all sorts of nectarivorous animals, including birds, bats, rats, possums, stingless bees and a host of invertebrates. Furthermore, they are of economic importance to Australia's nursery and cut flower industries. However these plants are threatened by a number of processes including land clearing, frequent burning and disease, and a number of species are rare and endangered.

Comprehensive Description