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Reproduction

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Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)

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Lehtenin, R. 2003. "Pipidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pipidae.html
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Richard M. Lehtenin
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Life Cycle

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Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

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Lehtenin, R. 2003. "Pipidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pipidae.html
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Richard M. Lehtenin
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Morphology

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Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Lehtenin, R. 2003. "Pipidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Pipidae.html
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Richard M. Lehtenin
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Pipidae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Pipidae are a family of primitive, tongueless frogs. The 41 species in the family Pipidae are found in tropical South America (genus Pipa) and sub-Saharan Africa (the three other genera).

Description

Pipid frogs are highly aquatic and have numerous morphological modifications befitting their habitat. For example, the feet are completely webbed, the body is flattened, and a lateral line system is present in adults.[1] In addition, pipids possess highly modified ears for producing and receiving sound under water. They lack a tongue or vocal cords, instead having bony rods in the larynx that help produce sound. They range from 4 to 19 cm (1.6 to 7.5 in) in body length.[2]

Extant genera

Family Pipidae Gray 1825[3]

  • Hymenochirus Boulenger 1896 - dwarf clawed frogs (4 species)
  • Pipa Laurenti 1768 - Surinam toads (7 species)
  • Pseudhymenochirus Chabanaud 1920 - Merlin's dwarf gray frog or Merlin's clawed frog (1 species)
  • Xenopus Wagler 1827 - clawed frogs (29 species)[4]
    • Subgenus (Silurana) Wagler 1827 - common clawed frogs
    • Subgenus (Xenopus) Gray 1864 - tropical clawed frogs

Fossil record

The fossil record for pipids and close relatives (Pipimorpha) is relatively good, with several extinct species known.[5] Six of these are placed in the extant genus Xenopus, the remainder in extinct genera. These fossils are known from Africa, South America, and the Middle East back to the Lower Cretaceous.[2][5]

Fossil Pipidae

South America
"Pipidae
"Pipidae"
"Pipidae"
"Pipidae"
"Pipidae"
"Pipidae"
"Pipidae"
"Pipidae"
Pipidae fossil locations in South America
"Lightgreen Late Cretaceous Los Alamitos
"Brown Danian Salamanca
"Orange Thanetian Huitrera
"Red Ypresian Itaboraí
"Gold Casamayoran Laguna del Hunco
"Yellow Mustersan Pozo
"Yellow Middle Miocene Urumaco
"Gold New Pipidae species
"Gold Pipidae genera
"Gold Indeterminate Pipidae

References

  1. ^ "AmphibiaWeb: Pipidae". Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
  2. ^ a b Zweifel, Richard G. (1998). Cogger, H.G.; Zweifel, R.G. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 86–87. ISBN 0-12-178560-2.
  3. ^ Pipidae at the Amphibian Species of the World 6.0 - AMNH
  4. ^ Evans et al., 2015
  5. ^ a b Gómez, 2016
  6. ^ Báez, 1987
  7. ^ Gelfo et al., 2007
  8. ^ Báez & Pugener, 2003
  9. ^ Estes & Wake, 1972
  10. ^ Báez & Trueb, 1997
  11. ^ Antoine et al., 2016
  12. ^ Head et al., 2006

Bibliography

"
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Pipidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Pipidae are a family of primitive, tongueless frogs. The 41 species in the family Pipidae are found in tropical South America (genus Pipa) and sub-Saharan Africa (the three other genera).

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Pipoidea

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Pipoidea are a clade of frogs that have variously been defined as a suborder,[2] superfamily,[3] or an unranked node-based taxon.[1] There is no single, authoritative higher-level classification of frogs, and Vitt and Caldwell (2014) use name Xenoanura for a similar clade, skipping Pipoidea altogether,[4] as did Frost et al. (2006).[5]

In 1993 Pipoidea was defined by Ford and Cannatella as the node-based taxon that contains the most recent common ancestor of living Pipidae and Rhinophrynidae as well as all its descendants:[1]

PipoideaPipimorpha

Pipidae

   

Palaeobatrachidae

   

"pipids"

       

Rhinophrynidae

   

"Pipids" are a group of fossil taxa with uncertain relationships: Thoraciliacus, Nevobatrachus, Saltenia, and Eoxenopoides.[1] Cannatella (2008) added Shomronella to this group.[6]

The synapomorphies that define Pipoidea are the absence of mentomeckelian bones, absence of lateral alae of the parasphenoid, fusion of the frontoparietals into an azygous element, greatly enlarged otic capsules, and a tadpole with paired spiracles and which lacks beaks and denticles.[1][6] Later genetic work has supported Pipoidea as a monophyletic group.[5]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Ford, Linda S.; Cannatella, David C. (1993). "The major clades of frogs". Herpetological Monographs. 7: 94–117. doi:10.2307/1466954. JSTOR 1466954.
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Anura Fischer von Waldheim, 1813". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 25 April 2016. Frost assigns authority "Laurent in Fuhn, 1960" to this name.
  3. ^ "Superfamily Pipoidea Fitzinger 1843". Paleobiology Database. Fossilworks. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  4. ^ Vitt, Laurie J.; Caldwell, Janalee P. (2014). Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles (4th ed.). Academic Press. pp. 92–95.
  5. ^ a b Frost, D. R.; Grant, T.; Faivovich, J. N.; Bain, R. H.; Haas, A.; Haddad, C. L. F. B.; De Sá, R. O.; Channing, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Donnellan, S. C.; Raxworthy, C. J.; Campbell, J. A.; Blotto, B. L.; Moler, P.; Drewes, R. C.; Nussbaum, R. A.; Lynch, J. D.; Green, D. M.; Wheeler, W. C. (2006). "The amphibian tree of life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 297: 1–291. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006)297[0001:TATOL]2.0.CO;2. hdl:2246/5781.
  6. ^ a b Cannatella, David (11 January 2008). "Anura: Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships (Pipimorpha)". Tree of Life Project. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
"
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Pipoidea: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

"Pipids" are a group of fossil taxa with uncertain relationships: Thoraciliacus, Nevobatrachus, Saltenia, and Eoxenopoides. Cannatella (2008) added Shomronella to this group.

The synapomorphies that define Pipoidea are the absence of mentomeckelian bones, absence of lateral alae of the parasphenoid, fusion of the frontoparietals into an azygous element, greatly enlarged otic capsules, and a tadpole with paired spiracles and which lacks beaks and denticles. Later genetic work has supported Pipoidea as a monophyletic group.

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