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Common Banded Hoverfly

Syrphus ribesii (Linnaeus 1758)

Brief Summary

    Syrphus ribesii: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Syrphus ribesii is a very common Holarctic species of hoverfly. Its larvae feed on aphids. In common with many other species of hoverfly, males have the eyes meeting on the top of the head, whilst females have their eyes widely separated.

    Adults are very similar in appearance to Syrphus vitripennis and Syrphus torvus. Females may be distinguished by the former having entirely yellow femorae, and from the latter by having no hairs present in their eyes. Males also have bare eyes, unlike S. torvus, but are extremely similar to S. vitripennis, differing only in having some black hairs present on the hind femur and in having the second basal cell of the wing entirely covered by microtrichia. The male genitalia and the larva are figured by Dusek and Laska (1964).

Comprehensive Description

    Cyclicity
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    Adult flight ranges between April and October in Canada.
    Distribution
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    Widespread throughout Canada, and from Alaska down to Mexico and Central America. It is also found in much of Europe, as well as Asia (Vockeroth 1992).
    General Description
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    Approximately 7 to 16 mm in length, black and yellow body. Eye bare, face yellow. Distinguishing between S. ribesii and S. vitripennis is quite difficult, however S. ribesii has the bm cell entirely covered with tiny hairs (i.e. trichose, see A on image) (Gilbert 1986). All specimens have tergites 3 and 4 with a yellow band rather than spots; these bands are usually complete but slightly divided in the middle in some specimens (see B on image), with this species generally showing a lot of variation in the shape of abdominal bands (Vockeroth 1992). Males: Frons usually completely dark, although it may be yellow on bottom one-fifth on some specimens. Hind femur either yellow or black on basal two-thirds. Females: Similar to males, although mid and hind femora only black right at base, with most specimens having a hind femur that is completely yellow (Vockeroth 1992).
    Syrphus ribesii
    provided by wikipedia

    Syrphus ribesii is a very common Holarctic species of hoverfly. Its larvae feed on aphids. In common with many other species of hoverfly, males have the eyes meeting on the top of the head, whilst females have their eyes widely separated.

    Adults are very similar in appearance to Syrphus vitripennis and Syrphus torvus. Females may be distinguished by the former having entirely yellow femorae, and from the latter by having no hairs present in their eyes. Males also have bare eyes, unlike S. torvus, but are extremely similar to S. vitripennis, differing only in having some black hairs present on the hind femur and in having the second basal cell of the wing entirely covered by microtrichia.[1] The male genitalia and the larva are figured by Dusek and Laska (1964).[2]

    Description

    External images. Frons is posterior to the lunulae, shiny black. Sternites have lateral and median black marks. Male femora 3 is black for basal 2/3. Femora 3 is yellow. Lateral margins of tergites are black except at the ends of the yellow bands.[3] The male genitalia and the larva are figured by Dusek and Laska (1964).[4]

    See references for determination.[5][6][7]

    Distribution

    Palearctic: Fennoscandia south to Iberia and the Mediterranean basin, Ireland eastward through Europe into Turkey, European Russia and Afghanistan. Also ranges from Urals to Siberia and Russian Far East to the Pacific coast (Kuril Isles) and Japan. Nearctic: Alaska southward to Central USA. Highly migratory.[8][9][10]

    Nearctic: United States and Canada.[11]

    Biology

    It is synanthropic, occurring in farmland, orchards, horticultural land, suburban gardens and parks. Also in deciduous and coniferous forest.[12] It flies March to mid-November. The larva feeds on aphids on various herbaceous plants. Adults feed on nectar and pollen. For a list of flowers visited, see de Buck (1990).[13] Boyes et al (1971) show that over much of Europe, there are two chromosome races of S. ribesii, one with 2n = 8, the other with 2n = 10.[14]

    References

    1. ^ Ball, Stuart & Morris, Roger. (2015). Britain's Hoverflies: A Field Guide. Princeton University Press. pp. 150, xvpp..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Dusek, J. & Laska, P. (1964). "A contribution to distinguishing the European species of the subgenus Syrphus Fab. (Diptera, Syrphidae) according to the male genitalia and larvae". Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslov. 61(1): 58-69.
    3. ^ Van Veen, M. (2004). Hoverflies of Northwest Europe: identification keys to the Syrphidae. 256pp. KNNV Publishing, Utrecht.addendum.
    4. ^ Dusek, J. & Laska, P. (1964). A contribution to distinguishing the European species of the subgenus Syrphus Fab. (Diptera, Syrphidae) according to the male genitalia and larvae. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslov. 61(1): 58-69.
    5. ^ Van der Goot, V.S. (1981). De zweefvliegen van Noordwest - Europa en Europees Rusland, in het bijzonder van de Benelux. KNNV, Uitgave no. 32: 275pp. Amsterdam.
    6. ^ Bei-Bienko, G.Y. & Steyskal, G.C. (1988). Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR, Volume V: Diptera and Siphonaptera, Part I. Amerind Publishing Co., New Delhi. ISBN 81-205-0080-6.
    7. ^ Coe, R.L. (1953). "Diptera: Syrphidae". Handbks. Ident. Br. Insects 10(1): 1-98. R. Ent. Soc. London. pdf.
    8. ^ Fauna Europaea.
    9. ^ Peck, L.V. (1988). "Syrphidae". In: Soos, A. & Papp, L. (eds.). Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera 8: 11-230. Akad. Kiado, Budapest.
    10. ^ Vockeroth, J.R. (1992). The Flower Flies of the Subfamily Syrphinae of Canada, Alaska, and Greenland (Diptera: Syrphidae). Part 18. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Government Pub Centre. pp. 1–456. ISBN 0-660-13830-1.
    11. ^ Bugguide.net. Syrphus ribesii data
    12. ^ Speight, M.C.D. (2011). "Species accounts of European Syrphidae (Diptera)" (PDF). Syrph the Net, the database of European Syrphidae. 65: 285pp.
    13. ^ de Buck, N. (1990). "Bloembezoek en bestuivingsecologie van Zweefvliegen (Diptera, Syrphidae) in het bijzonder voor België". Doc. Trav. IRSNB, no. 60, 1-167.
    14. ^ Boyes, J.W., van Brink, J.M. & Boyes, B.C. (1971). "Chromosomes of Syrphinae (Diptera: Syrphidae)". Misc. Pub. Genet. Soc. Can. 1-158.

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    Larvae are aphidophagous and polyphagous, and feed on a wide range of aphid species. In North America, larvae have been recorded on several species of Aphis and Microsiphum, as well as on Pemphigus populicaulis, Cinara hottesi, C. carolina, and C. lasiocarpa (Vockeroth 1992).

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    Variable; mixed forests, gardens, meadows, and fields (Laska and Stary 1980).

Life Cycle

    Life Cycle
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    Syrphus ribesii is oligovoltine in England, with either two or three generations per year, and overwinters as a cold-tolerant larva (Sadeghi and Gilbert 2000a). However, it has also been reported to migrate in large numbers to the Mediterranean to overwinter (Gilbert 1986). It is a common and voracious predator, and can have a significant effect on the natural regulation of aphid populations. Males can be heard to make an audible noise with their wings as they vibrate them rapidly to warm up their thoracic muscles for flight; this is presumably to maximize the chances of catching a female, as mating occurs mid-flight and lasts as little as two seconds (Gilbert 1986). After pupation, emerged adult females are able to oviposit 7 to 8 days post-eclosion (Sadeghi and Gilbert 2000b). Much work has been done on the oviposition preference of the females of this species, with females showing a strong preference to oviposit near sycamore aphids, rose aphids, and pea aphids when given a choice of eight species (Sadeghi and Gilbert 2000b). Many parasitoids of S. ribesii are also known, including (amongst many families) members of the Braconidae, Chalcididae, Proctotrupidae, Encyrtidae, and Ichneumonidae. In particular, the Ichnuemonid Diplazon laetatorius is a common enemy, and S. ribesii larvae have evolved many defences against them. The remain still when they detect parasitiod antennal tapping, and emit a sticky oral substance if an ovipositor is inserted. Finally, they will assume a crescent shape and roll over if an attack persists (Rotheray 1981).

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by University of Alberta Museums
    Widespread and common, not of concern.