dcsimg

Melittidae

provided by wikipedia EN

Melittidae is a small bee family, with over 200 described species[1] in three subfamilies.[2] The family has a limited distribution, with all described species restricted to Africa and the northern temperate zone.[1]

Fossil melittids have been found occasionally in Eocene amber deposits, including those of Oise, France[3] and the Baltic amber.[4]

Evolution

Early molecular work suggested that the family Melittidae was sister to all other bees, and also that it was paraphyletic.[5][6] Because of this finding, it was suggested that the three subfamilies of Melittidae should be elevated to family status.[5] Neither study included many melittids, due to their rarity. A 2013 investigation included a greater number of melittid bees and concluded that the family could still be monophyletic.[2]

Recent research has shown that Melittids have a lower extinction rate compared to other hymenopterans, yet this family is considered species-poor. This is attributed to a significantly lower diversification rate as seen in other bee families. [7] Danforth et al. suggests that this is because they are oligoleges. Whereas other bees express polylecty (diverse host-plant preferences) allowing them to increase their diversification rate compared to melittids.

Characteristics

Melittids are typically small to moderate-sized bees, which are well known for their specialist and oligolectic foraging habits. They are strictly solitary and they nest in burrows that they dig in soil or sand.[8]

References

  1. ^ a b Michez D. (2008) Monographic revision of the melittid bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Melittidae sensu lato). Proc. Neth. Entomol. Soc. Meet. 19: 31-39.
  2. ^ a b Hedtke, Shannon H. (2013). "The bee tree of life: a supermatrix approach to apoid phylogeny and biogeography". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 13 (138): 138. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-138. PMC 3706286. PMID 23822725.
  3. ^ Michez, Denis; Nel, Andre; Menier, Jean-Jacques; Rasmont, Pierre (2007). "The oldest fossil of a melittid bee (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) from the early Eocene of Oise (France)" (PDF). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 150 (4): 701–709. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00307.x.
  4. ^ Engel, MS (2001). "A monograph of the Baltic Amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera)". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 259: 1–192. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2001)259<0001:amotba>2.0.co;2. hdl:2246/1437.
  5. ^ a b Danforth, B.N., Sipes, S., Fang, J., Brady, S.G. (2006). "The history of early bee diversification based on five genes plus morphology". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (41): 15118–15123. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604033103. PMC 1586180. PMID 17015826.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ Danforth, Bryan (2007). "Bees-a primer" (PDF). Current Biology. 17 (5): 156–161. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.01.025. PMID 17339010.
  7. ^ Murray, Elizabeth A.; Bossert, Silas; Danforth, Bryan N. (28 November 2018). "Pollinivory and the diversification dynamics of bees". Biology Letters. The Royal Society Publishing. 14 (11): 20180530. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2018.0530. PMC 6283915. PMID 30429246.
  8. ^ C. D. Michener (2000) The Bees of the World, Johns Hopkins University Press.

"
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN

Melittidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Melittidae is a small bee family, with over 200 described species in three subfamilies. The family has a limited distribution, with all described species restricted to Africa and the northern temperate zone.

Fossil melittids have been found occasionally in Eocene amber deposits, including those of Oise, France and the Baltic amber.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN