dcsimg
Leaf beetle
provided by wikipedia EN

The insects of the beetle family Chrysomelidae[2] are commonly known as leaf beetles, and include over 37,000 (and probably at least 50,000) species in more than 2,500 genera, making up one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families. Numerous subfamilies are recognized, but only some of them are listed below. The precise taxonomy and systematics are likely to change with ongoing research.

Leaf beetles are partially recognizable by their tarsal formula, which appears to be 4-4-4, but is actually 5-5-5 as the 4th tarsal segment is very small and hidden by the 3rd.[3] As with many taxa, there is no single character that defines the Chrysomelidae; instead it is delineated by a set of characters.[4] Some lineages are only distinguished with difficulty from longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae), namely by the antennae not arising from frontal tubercles.

Adult and larval leaf beetles feed on all sorts of plant tissue, and all species are fully herbivorous. Many are serious pests of cultivated plants, for example the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), the asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparagi), the cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus), and various flea beetles, and a few act as vectors of plant diseases. Others are beneficial due to their use in biocontrol of invasive weeds. Some Chrysomelidae are conspicuously colored, typically in glossy yellow to red or metallic blue-green hues, and some (especially Cassidinae) have spectacularly bizarre shapes. Thus, they are highly popular among insect collectors.

Description

The imagos of leaf beetles are small to medium-sized, i.e. most species range from 1 to 18 mm in length, excluding appendages, with just a few larger species such as Alurnus humeralis which reaches 35 mm. The bodies of most species are domed, and oval in dorsal view (though some are round or elongate), and they often possess a metallic luster or multiple colors. In most specimens the antennae are notably shorter than head, thorax and abdomen, i.e. not more than half their combined length. The second antennal segment is of normal size (which differentiates leaf beatles from the closely related longhorn beetles). In most species, the antennal segments are of a more or less equal shape, at most they gradually widen towards the tip, although some Galerucinae in particular have modified segments, mainly in males. The first segment of the antenna in most cases is larger than the following ones. The pronotum of leaf beetles varies between species. In most it is slightly to highly domed and trapezoidal to rounded-squarish in dorsal view. In some subfamilies such as the Cassidinae and to a lesser extent the Cryptocephalinae, the head is covered by the pronotum and thus not visible from above. The first three sternites are not fused, instead being linked by mobile sutures. Most species possess wings, although the level of development and thus flight ability varies widely, including within a single species, and some are flightless with fused elytra.[5]

Subfamilies

The family includes the following subfamilies:

  • Bruchinae Latreille, 1802 – bean weevils or seed beetles
  • Cassidinae Gyllenhal, 1813 – tortoise beetles; includes the former "Hispinae"
  • Chrysomelinae Latreille, 1802 – broad-bodied leaf beetles
  • Criocerinae Latreille, 1804 – asparagus beetles, lily beetles, etc.
  • Cryptocephalinae Gyllenhal, 1813 – cylindrical leaf beetles and warty leaf beetles; includes former "Chlamisinae" and "Clytrinae"
  • Donaciinae Kirby, 1837 – longhorned leaf beetles
  • Eumolpinae Hope, 1840 – oval leaf beetles; includes the former "Synetinae"
  • Galerucinae Latreille, 1802 – includes the former "Alticinae" (flea beetles)
  • Lamprosomatinae Lacordaire, 1848
  • Sagrinae Leach, 1815 – frog-legged beetles or kangaroo beetles
  • Spilopyrinae Chapuis, 1874

Until recently, the subfamily Bruchinae was considered a separate family, while two former subfamilies are presently considered families (Orsodacnidae and Megalopodidae). Other commonly recognized subfamilies have recently been grouped with other subfamilies, usually reducing them to tribal rank (e.g., the former Alticinae, Chlamisinae, Clytrinae, Synetinae, and Hispinae).

Predators

Some species of wasps, such as Polistes carolina, have been known to prey upon Chrysomelidae larvae after the eggs are laid in flowers.[6]

References

  1. ^ "Chrysomelidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Gomes Gonçalves, Marcos Paulo (December 2017). "Relationship Between Meteorological Conditions and Beetles in Mata de Cocal". Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia. pp. 543–554. doi:10.1590/0102-7786324003. ISSN 0102-7786.
  3. ^ "Family Identification – Chrysomeloidea". University of Florida. Archived from the original on 2006-10-13. Retrieved 2006-11-29.
  4. ^ Jolivet, Pierre; Verma, Krishna K. (2002). Biology of Leaf Beetles. Andover: Intercept. pp. 5–9. ISBN 1-898298-86-6.
  5. ^ Stresemann, Erwin (1994). Exkursionsfauna von Deutschland. Wirbellose Insekten. Erster Teil (8th ed.). Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag. ISBN 3-334-60823-9.
  6. ^ "Polistes carolina (Linnaeus, 1767)". Biology. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification. doi:10.3752/cjai.2008.05. Retrieved 2014-09-17.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
985f93858ebd513aae37483ee8e8d2e0
Leaf beetle: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

The insects of the beetle family Chrysomelidae are commonly known as leaf beetles, and include over 37,000 (and probably at least 50,000) species in more than 2,500 genera, making up one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families. Numerous subfamilies are recognized, but only some of them are listed below. The precise taxonomy and systematics are likely to change with ongoing research.

Leaf beetles are partially recognizable by their tarsal formula, which appears to be 4-4-4, but is actually 5-5-5 as the 4th tarsal segment is very small and hidden by the 3rd. As with many taxa, there is no single character that defines the Chrysomelidae; instead it is delineated by a set of characters. Some lineages are only distinguished with difficulty from longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae), namely by the antennae not arising from frontal tubercles.

Adult and larval leaf beetles feed on all sorts of plant tissue, and all species are fully herbivorous. Many are serious pests of cultivated plants, for example the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), the asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparagi), the cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus), and various flea beetles, and a few act as vectors of plant diseases. Others are beneficial due to their use in biocontrol of invasive weeds. Some Chrysomelidae are conspicuously colored, typically in glossy yellow to red or metallic blue-green hues, and some (especially Cassidinae) have spectacularly bizarre shapes. Thus, they are highly popular among insect collectors.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
a5ed001c7017f92965fdeefc8902f836
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Madagascar (Fig. 278).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_1_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Madagascar (Fig. 287).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_10_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Malawi and Zimbabwe (Fig. 370).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_100_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of the Congo (Fig. 291).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_14_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Republic of South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, North-West Province and Western Cape Provinces) (Fig. 292).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_15_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Namibia (Fig. 296).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_19_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Uganda (Fig. 299).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_22_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Cameroon (!) [N’Kongsamba (MCSN)] and Republic of Congo (Fig. 302).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_25_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Nigeria, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania and Zimbabwe (Fig. 304).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_27_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Afrotropical region (excluding Madagascar) (Fig. 305).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_28_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Central, Eastern, and Southern-Eastern Africa (Fig. 306).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_29_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Madagascar (!) [Ambalamanankana (NHMB); Perinet (NHMB); Andohahele (BAQ)] and the Republic of South Africa (Fig. 280).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_3_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Republic of Congo and Gabon (!) [Makokou (NMHN)] (Fig. 308).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_31_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo and Guinea (Fig. 310).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_33_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Ethiopia (!) [Sidamo (BAQ)] and the Republic of South Africa [Eastern (!): Kirkwood (SANC), Grahamstown (SANC), Uitenhage (BAQ); Northern (!): Port Nolloth (SANC); and Western Cape Provinces] (Fig. 312).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_35_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Ethiopia, Kenya (!) [S of Garissa (BAQ); NW of Garsen (BAQ); Taita, Mwatate (BAQ)], Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Socotra Island (Yemen) (Fig. 314).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_37_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Nigeria, Guinea, Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda (!) [Budongo Forest, Sonso (BAQ)], Rwanda, and Malawi (!) [Dedza (BAQ)] (Fig. 315).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_38_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Republic of South Africa, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe (Fig. 281).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_4_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Nigeria and Rwanda (Fig. 319).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_42_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Madagascar (Fig. 320).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_43_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Madagascar (Fig. 323).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_46_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Republic of South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), Tanzania and Zambia (Fig. 282).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_5_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo and Togo (Fig. 327).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_50_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Madagascar, Republic of South Africa (Limpopo), Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Sierra Leoneand Uganda (!) [Budongo Forest, Sonso (BAQ)] (Fig. 328).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_51_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of South Africa (Mpumalanga), Rwanda, and Tanzania (Fig. 329).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_52_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Republic of the Congo and Tanzania (Fig. 330).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_53_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi (!) [Mulanje Mts (BAQ); Kasungu(BAQ)] and Zambia (!) [35 km S of Kasama (BAQ)] (Fig. 331).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_54_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Afrotropical (including Madagascar), Australian, Eastern Palaearctic, and Oriental regions (Fig. 334).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_57_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Malawi and the Republic of South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, and North-West Province) (Fig. 335).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_58_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Republic of South Africa (!) [Mpumalanga, Mount Sheba (BAQ)], Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda (Fig. 338)
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_61_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Madagascar and Sub-Saharan Africa (absent in the southern part of SAF) (Fig. 339).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_62_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Benin, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi (!) [Mulanje Mts. (BAQ)], Nigeria and Uganda (Fig. 344).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_67_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Tanzania (Fig. 347).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_70_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Afrotropical (excluding Madagascar), Oriental and Palaearctic regions (Fig. 349).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_72_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Republic of South Africa (Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal), Sudan and Tanzania (Fig. 351).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_74_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Central and Western Africa, and Madagascar (Fig. 352)
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_75_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Sub-Saharan Africa (absent in the southern-western part of SAF and Madagascar). Physonychis varicornis Duvivier, 1891 from Madagascar was transferred to the genus Physoma Clark by Bechyné (1959c) (Fig. 354).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_77_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Sub-Saharan Africa (absent in the south-western part of SAF and Madagascar), Saudi Arabia, and Yemen (Fig. 356).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_79_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Only found onMadagascar (Fig. 358).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_81_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
“Africa”.
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_84_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Burundi (!) [Bururi (ZSM)], Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and the Oriental region (Fig. 361).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_85_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Madagascar, Namibia, Republic of South Africa (Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and KwaZulu-Natal), Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe (Fig. 363).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_87_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Indian Ocean (Seychelles) (Fig. 364).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_88_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Republic of South Africa [Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, and Eastern Cape Province] (Fig. 368).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_92_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, the Republic of South Africa, and Uganda (Fig. 370).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_94_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Australian, Eastern Palaearctic, and Oriental regions (Fig. 371).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_95_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo (Fig. 372).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_96_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Democratic Republic of the Congo (Fig. 373).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_97_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Madagascar (Fig. 374).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_98_distribution
Distribution
provided by Zookeys
Arabian Peninsula and Socotra Island (Yemen) (Fig. 375).
license
cc-by-3.0
copyright
Maurizio Biondi, Paola D’Alessandro
bibliographic citation
Biondi M, D’Alessandro P (2012) Afrotropical flea beetle genera: a key to their identification, updated catalogue and biogeographical analysis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) ZooKeys 253: 1–158
author
Maurizio Biondi
author
Paola D’Alessandro
original
visit source
partner site
Zookeys
ID
zookeys.253.3414.sp_99_distribution