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Brief Summary

provided by Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico
This is the largest and most difficult family of the PLANTS. Chalcidoidea. Almost all species are parasitic, but a very few are gall formers, a few are phytophagous, and some others should be considered to be predaceous. The latter feed, as larvae, on a succession of eggs or larvae of their prey, while enclosed within stems of grasses or other herbaceous plants.
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Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. 1979. Prepared cooperatively by specialists on the various groups of Hymenoptera under the direction of Karl V. Krombein and Paul D. Hurd, Jr., Smithsonian Institution, and David R. Smith and B. D. Burks, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Insect Identification and Beneficial Insect Introduction Institute. Science and Education Administration, United States Department of Agriculture.

Remarks

provided by Deans Deitz Wharton et al
This is one of the largest families in the Chalcidoidea. Several genera of pteromalids have been reared from fly puparia, including tephritids, but relatively few from fruit-infesting tephritids. The most commonly encountered pteromalids reared from fruit-infesting tephritids are Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani) (Figures 1-3) and various species of Spalangia (Figures 4 & 5). These are polyphagous pupal parasitoids, and usually gregarious when attacking tephritids. Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae, though often mass-reared for release against tephritid pests, is more likely to attack other hosts, such as drosophilids. P. vindemmiae was introduced in Bolivia in 1969 for control of Ceratitis capitata (Bennett and Squire 1972).

The species name for Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Figures 1-3) is often incorrectly spelled vindemiae because of confusion on the part of Rondani in a subsequent publication.

Other pteromalids that are known to attack fruit-infesting tephritids include at least one species each in the genera Halticoptera, Cyrtogaster, and Pteromalus. Halticoptera is a koinobiont larval parasitoid, Cyrtogaster is an idiobiont pupal parasitoid, and Pteromalus is an idiobiont larval parasitoid. See also the genus page on Cyrtoptyx.

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Pteromalidae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Pteromalidae are a very large family of mostly parasitoid wasps, with some 3,450 described species in about 640 genera (the number was greater, but many species and genera have been reduced to synonymy in recent years). The subfamily-level divisions of the family are highly contentious and unstable, and the family unquestionably is completely artificial, composed of numerous, distantly related groups (polyphyletic). Accordingly, details of their life histories range over nearly the entire range possible within the Chalcidoidea, though the majority are (as with most chalcidoids) parasitoids of other insects. They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and many are important as biological control agents. The oldest known fossil is known from the Early Cretaceous[1]

In essence, a "pteromalid" is any member of the Chalcidoidea that has five-segmented tarsi and does not have the defining features of any of the remaining families with five-segmented tarsi. Unquestionably, this family will be divided into several families in the near future.[2]

Description

Usually metallic Chalcidoids of varying body size (from 1–48 mm long) and built (slender to quite robust), with the tarsi of the fore and hind legs consisting of five segments, which carry antennae consisting of eight to thirteen segments (including up to 3 annelli), and that in fully winged forms have in the fore wing a marginal vein that is at least several times longer than broad, very often with well-developed postmarginal and stigmal veins, although these are rarely quite short, and nearly always a distinct speculum.[3]

Ecology

The life strategies of the species in this family vary greatly. There are both solitary and gregarious species, living outside (ectoparasitoid) or inside their prey (endoparasitoid), koinobionts and idiobionts, primary parasitoids and hyperparasitoids and even predators that kill and consume the prey immediately.[3] Because of their parasitoid nature, wasps of this family are often used as biological control agents for destructive pests such as american serpentine leafminers.[4]

Subfamilies (32-35)

Asaphinae - Austrosystasinae - Austroterobiinae - Ceinae - Cerocephalinae - Chromeurytominae - Cleonyminae - Coelocybinae - Colotrechninae - Cratominae - Diparinae - Ditropinotellinae - Elatoidinae - Epichrysomallinae - Erotolepsiinae - Eunotinae - Eutrichosomatinae - Herbertiinae - Keiraninae - Leptofoeninae - Louriciinae - Macromesinae - Miscogasterinae - Nefoeninae - Neodiparinae - Ormocerinae - Panstenoninae - Parasaphodinae - Pireninae - Pteromalinae - Spalangiinae - Storeyinae - Sycoecinae - Sycoryctinae

Overview of genera (591 + 1†)

Ablaxia - Abomalus - Acaenacis - Acerocephala - Acoelocyba - Acroclisella - Acroclisis - Acroclisissa - Acroclisoides - Acroclypa - Acrocormus - Aditrochus - Aeschylia - Afropsilocera - Agamerion - Aggelma - Agiommatus - Agrilocida - Aiemea - Allocricellius - Alloderma - Alticornis - Alyxiaphagus - Amandia - Amazonisca - Amblyharma - Amblypachus - Ambogaster - Amerostenus - Ammeia - Amoturella - Amphidocius - Andersena - Angulifrons - Anisopteromalus - Ankaratrella - Anogmoides - Anogmus - Anorbanus - Apelioma - Aphobetus - Apsilocera - Apycnetron - Arachnopteromalus - Ardilea - Arriva - Arthrolytus - Asaphes - Asaphoideus - Asparagobius - Atrichomalus - Ausasaphes - Australeunotus - Australicesa - Australolaelaps - Australurios - Austrosystasis - Austroterobia - Bairamlia - Balrogia - Baridobius - Blascoa - Bofuria - Boharticus - Bohpa - Bomburia - Bonitoa - Boucekina - Boucekius - Brachycaudonia - Brachyscelidiphaga - Bruesisca - Bubekia - Bubekiana - Bugacia - Bulolosa - Bupronotum - Caenacis - Caenocrepis - Callicarolynia - Callimerismus - Callimomoides - Calliprymna - Callitula - Callocleonymus - Calolelaps - Cameronella - Canada - Canberrana - Capellia - Catolaccus - Cavitas - Cea - Cecidellis - Cecidolampa - Cecidostiba - Cecidoxenus - Cephaleta - Ceratetra - Cerocephala - Cerodipara - Chadwickia - Chalcedectus - Chalcidiscelis - Cheiropachus - Chimaerolelaps - Chlorocytus - Choetospilisca - Chromeurytoma - Chrysoglyphe - Cleonymus - Coelocyba - Coelocyboides - Coelopisthia - Collentis - Collessina - Colotrechnus - Conigastrus - Conodipara - Conomorium - Conophorisca - Cooloolana - Coruna - Cratomus - Cryptoprymna - Cybopella - Cyclogastrella - Cyrtogaster - Cyrtophagoides - Cyrtoptyx - Dasycleonymus - Dasyneurophaga - Delisleia - Delucchia - Desantisiana - Dibrachoides - Dibrachys - Diconocara - Diglochis - Dimachus - Dinarmoides - Dinarmolaelaps - Dinarmus - Dineuticida - Dinotiscus - Dinotoides - Diourbelia - Dipachystigma - Dipara - Dirhicnus - Ditropinotella - Divna - Doddifoenus - Doganlaria - Dorcatomophaga - Dozodipara - Drailea - Dudichilla - Dvalinia - Ecrizotes - Ecrizotomorpha - Elachertodomyia - Elachertoidea - Elatoides - Elderia - Encyrtocephalus - Endomychobius - Enoggera - Eopteromalites - Epanogmus - Epelatus - Epicatolaccus - Epicopterus - Epipteromalus - Epistenia - Epiterobia - Erdoesia - Erdoesina - Erixestus - Erotolepsia - Erotolepsiella - Errolia - Erythromalus - Espinosa - Eucoelocybomyia - Eulonchetron - Eumacepolus - Euneura - Eunotomyiia - Eunotopsia - Eunotus - Eupelmophotismus - Eurydinota - Eurydinoteloides - Eurydinotomorpha - Eurytomomma - Eutelisca - Euteloida - Eutrichosoma - Ezgia - Fanamokala - Fedelia - Ferrierelus - Ficicola - Fijita - Frena - Fusiterga - Gahanisca - Gastracanthus - Gastrancistrus - Gbelcia - Genangula - Globimesosoma - Globonila - Glorimontana - Glyphognathus - Glyphotoma - Gnathophorisca - Goidanichium - Golovissima - Grissellium - Grooca - Guancheria - Gugolzia - Guinea - Guolina - Gyrinophagus - Habritella - Habritys - Habromalina - Hadroepistenia - Haliplogeton - Halomalus - Halticoptera - Halticopterella - Halticopterina - Halticopteroides - Hansonita - Harrizia - Hedqvistia - Hedqvistina - Helocasis - Hemadas - Hemitrichus - Herbertia - Heteroprymna - Heteroschema - Hetreulophus - Heydenia - Heydeniopsis - Hillerita - Hirtonila - Hlavka - Hobbya - Holcaeus - Homoporus - Hubena - Huberina - Hyperimerus - Hypopteromalus - Idioporus - Indoclava - Inkaka - Ischyroptyx - Ismaya - Isocyrtella - Isocyrtus - Isoplatoides - Jaliscoa - Janssoniella - Kaleva - Kazina - Keesia - Keirana - Kerya - Klabonosa - Kneva - Kratinka - Kratka - Krivena - Ksenoplata - Kukua - Kumarella - Laesthiola - Lampoterma - Lamprotatus - Lanthanomyia - Lariophagus - Lasallea - Laticlypa - Lelaps - Lelapsomorpha - Lenka - Leodamus - Leptofoenus - Leptogasterites - Leptomeraporus - Licteria - Liepara - Lincolna - Lisseurytoma - Lomonosoffiella - Lonchetron - Longinucha - Lycisca - Lyrcus - Lysirina - Lyubana - Macroglenes - Macromesus - Makaronesa - Manineura - Maorita - Marxiana - Mauleus - Mayrellus - Mazinawa - Megadicylus - Megamelanosoma - Melancistrus - Merallus - Meraporus - Merismoclea - Merismomorpha - Merismus - Merisus - Mesamotura - Mesolelaps - Mesolelaps - Mesopeltita - Mesopolobus - Metacolus - Metastenus - Meximalus - Micradelus - Mimencyrtus - Mirekia - Miristhma - Miscogaster - Miscogasteriella - Mnoonema - Mokrzeckia - Monazosa - Monoksa - Moranila - Morodora - Muesebeckisia - Muscidifurax - Myrmicolelaps - Nadelaia - Nambouria - Narendrella - Nasonia - Nazgulia - Neanica - Neapterolelaps - Neboissia - Nedinotus - Nefoenus - Neocalosoter - Neocatolaccus - Neochalcissia - Neocylus - Neodipara - Neoepistenia - Neolelaps - Neolyubana - Neoperilampus - Neopolycystus - Neosciatheras - Neoskeloceras - Neotoxeumorpha - Nephelomalus - Nepistenia - Nerotolepsia - Netomocera - Nikolskayana - Nodisoplata - Norbanus - Nosodipara - Notanisus - Notoglyptus - Notoprymna - Novitzkyanus - Nuchata - Oaxa - Obalana - Ogloblinisca - Omphalodipara - Oniticellobia - Oodera - Oomara - Ophelosia - Oricoruna - Ormocerus - Ormyromorpha - Ottaria - Ottawita - Oxyglypta - Oxyharma - Oxysychus - Pachycrepoideus - Pachyneuron - Pachyneuronella - Pandelus - Panstenon - Papuopsia - Parabruchobius - Paracarotomus - Paracerocephala - Paracroclisis - Paradinarmus - Paraiemea - Paralaesthia - Paralamprotatus - Paralycisca - Parasaphodes - Paratomicobia - Parepistenia - Paroxyharma - Patiyana - Peckianus - Pegopus - Peridesmia - Perilampella - Perilampidea - Perilampomyia - Perniphora - Pestra - Petipirene - Pezilepsis - Phaenocytus - Plastobelyta - Platecrizotes - Platneptis - Platygerrhus - Platypteromalus - Playaspalangia - Ploskana - Plutothrix - Podivna - Polstonia - Premiscogaster - Procallitula - Proglochin - Promerisus - Promuscidea - Propicroscytus - Propodeia - Proshizonotus - Protoepistenia - Pseudanogmus - Pseudetroxys - Pseudocatolaccus - Pseudoceraphron - Psilocera - Psilonotus - Psychophagoides - Psychophagus - Pterapicus - Pterisemoppa - Pteromalinites - Pteromalus - Pterosemigastra - Pterosemopsis - Ptinocida - Pycnetron - Pyramidophoriella - Queenslandia - Quercanus - Rakosina - Raspela - Rhaphitelus - Rhicnocoelia - Rhopalicus - Riekisura - Rivasia - Rohatina - Romanisca - Roptrocerus - Scaphepistenia - Sceptrothelys - Schimitschekia - Schizonotus - Sciatherellus - Scutellista - Sedma - Seladerma - Selimnus - Semiotellus - Sennia - Shedoepistenia - Sigynia - Sirovena - Sisyridivora - Solenura - Sorosina - Spalangia - Spalangiopelta - Spaniopus - Spathopus - Sphaeripalpus - Sphegigaster - Sphegigastrella - Sphegipterosema - Sphegipterosemella - Spilomalus - Spinancistrus - Spintherus - Spodophagus - Staurothyreus - Stenetra - Stenomalina - Stenophrus - Stenoselma - Stichocrepis - Stictolelaps - Stictomischus - Stinoplus - Storeya - Strejcekia - Striatacanthus - Sympotomus - Synedrus - Syntomopus - Systasis - Systellogaster - Systolomorpha - Szelenyinus - Tanina - Tanzanicesa - Teasienna - Telepsogina - Termolampa - Terobiella - Thaumasura - Thektogaster - Theocolax - Thinodytes - Thureonella - Tomicobia - Tomicobiella - Tomicobomorpha - Tomicobomorphella - Tomocerodes - Toxeuma - Toxeumella - Toxeumelloides - Toxeumorpha - Trichargyrus - Trichilogaster - Trichokaleva - Trichomalopsis - Trichomalus - Tricolas - Tricyclomischus - Trigonoderopsis - Trigonoderus - Trigonogastrella - Trinotiscus - Tripteromalus - Tritneptis - Trjapitzinia - Trychnosoma - Tsela - Tumor - Uniclypea - Uriellopteromalus - Urolepis - Urolycisca - Usubaia - Uzka - Velepirene - Veltrusia - Vespita - Vrestovia - Watshamia - Westra - Westwoodiana - Wubina - Xantheurytoma - Xestomnaster - Xiphydriophagus - Yanchepia - Yosemitea - Yrka - Yusufia - Zdenekiana - Zeala - Zebe - Zolotarewskya †- Dominocephala[5]

Pteromalus cassotis is a parasitoid of the monarch butterfly.[6]

References

  1. ^ Barling, Nathan; Heads, Sam W.; Martill, David M. (October 2013). "A new parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil: The first Mesozoic Pteromalidae". Cretaceous Research. 45: 258–264. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2013.05.001. ISSN 0195-6671.
  2. ^ Several. "Pteromalidae". BugGuide.
  3. ^ a b B.R. Pitkin. "Pteromalidae". Universal Chalcidoidea Database.
  4. ^ "American serpentine leafminer - Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)". entnemdept.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
  5. ^ "Pteromalidae". Nederlands soortenregister.
  6. ^ Stenoien, Carl; McCoshum, Shaun; Caldwell, Wendy; Anda, Alma De; Oberhauser, Karen (1 January 2015). "New Reports that Monarch Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danaus plexippus Linnaeus) are Hosts for a Pupal Parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidae, Pteromalus cassotis Walker)". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 88 (1): 16–26. doi:10.2317/JKES1402.22.1.

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Pteromalidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Pteromalidae are a very large family of mostly parasitoid wasps, with some 3,450 described species in about 640 genera (the number was greater, but many species and genera have been reduced to synonymy in recent years). The subfamily-level divisions of the family are highly contentious and unstable, and the family unquestionably is completely artificial, composed of numerous, distantly related groups (polyphyletic). Accordingly, details of their life histories range over nearly the entire range possible within the Chalcidoidea, though the majority are (as with most chalcidoids) parasitoids of other insects. They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and many are important as biological control agents. The oldest known fossil is known from the Early Cretaceous

In essence, a "pteromalid" is any member of the Chalcidoidea that has five-segmented tarsi and does not have the defining features of any of the remaining families with five-segmented tarsi. Unquestionably, this family will be divided into several families in the near future.

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copyright
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original
visit source
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