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Behavior
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Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

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Dewey, T. . "Clupeidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Clupeidae.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Clupeidae/communication
Morphology
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Other Physical Features: bilateral symmetry

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Dewey, T. . "Clupeidae" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed April 27, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Clupeidae.html
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Tanya Dewey, Animal Diversity Web
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Clupeidae/physical_description
Clupeidae
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Clupeidae is a family of ray-finned fishes, comprising, for instance, the herrings, shads, sardines, ilish, and menhadens. The clupeids include many of the most important food fishes in the world, and are also commonly caught for production of fish oil and fish meal. Many members of the family have a body protected with shiny cycloid scales (very smooth and uniform scales), a single dorsal fin, with a fusiform body for quick, evasive swimming and pursuit of prey composed of small planktonic animals. Due to their small size, and position in the lower trophic level of many marine food webs, the levels of methylmercury they bioaccumulate are very low, reducing the risk of mercury poisoning when consumed.

Description and biology

Clupeids are mostly marine forage fish, although a few species are found in fresh water. No species has scales on the head, and some are entirely scaleless. The lateral line is short or absent, and the teeth are unusually small where they are present at all. Clupeids typically feed on plankton, and range from 2 to 75 cm (0.8 to 30 in.) in length.[1] The family arguably also contains the "Sundasalangidae", a paedomorphic taxon first thought to be a distinct salmoniform family, but then discovered to be deeply nested in Clupeidae.[1] In the fossil record clupeids date back to the early Paleogene.

Clupeids spawn huge numbers of eggs (up to 200,000 in some species) near the surface of the water. After hatching, the larvae live among the plankton until they develop a swim bladder and transform into adults. These eggs and fry are not protected or tended to by parents. The adults typically live in large shoals, seeking protection from piscivorous predators such as birds, sharks and other predatory fish, toothed whales, marine mammals and jellyfish. They also form bait balls.[2][1]

Commercially important species of Clupeidae include for instance the Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), the Atlantic and Baltic herrings (Clupea harengus), the Pacific herring (C. pallasii) and the European pilchard or sardine (Sardina pilchardus).

The family currently comprises 54 genera and approximately 200 species.[1]

Taxonomy

Taxonomy based on the works of Van der Laan 2017[3] and Nelson, Grande & Wilson 2016.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2014). "Clupeidae" in FishBase. December 2014 version.
  2. ^ Nelson, Gareth (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N., eds. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 0-12-547665-5..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ van der Laan, Richard (December 2017). Freshwater fish list (PDF) (23rd ed.). p. 997. ISSN 2468-9157.CS1 maint: Date and year (link)
  4. ^ Nelson, Joseph S.; Terry C. Grande; Mark V. H. Wilson (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118342336.
True herrings
Herring buss
Atlantic herring
Other herringsMisc herringsHerring boats As foodRelated topics
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a190fbe3ea6cc9c65941107a19558d76
Clupeidae: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Clupeidae is a family of ray-finned fishes, comprising, for instance, the herrings, shads, sardines, ilish, and menhadens. The clupeids include many of the most important food fishes in the world, and are also commonly caught for production of fish oil and fish meal. Many members of the family have a body protected with shiny cycloid scales (very smooth and uniform scales), a single dorsal fin, with a fusiform body for quick, evasive swimming and pursuit of prey composed of small planktonic animals. Due to their small size, and position in the lower trophic level of many marine food webs, the levels of methylmercury they bioaccumulate are very low, reducing the risk of mercury poisoning when consumed.

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108ee58a71ae72adda2e6be43846a5de
Distribution
provided by World Register of Marine Species
Distribution: global (mostly tropical) from 70° N to about 60° S. Chiefly marine coastal and schooling fishes; some freshwater and anadromous. Body usually fusiform, round to strongly compressed. Head without scales; jaw teeth, when present, are small or minute. A single dorsal fin, small and near midpoint of body; pelvic fins more or less below dorsal fin base; dorsal and pelvic fins absent in some species; soft rays only. Lateral line spanning a few scales behind the head in some species, missing in others; scales cycloid (smooth to touch); abdominal scutes usually present (a single pelvic scute in the Dussumieriinae). Branchiostegal rays usually 5-10. Most feed on small planktonic animals. Size range (adults): from 2 to 75 cm. One of the most important family of commercial fishes, processed for food, oil, or fish meal.
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MASDEA (1997).
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Edward Vanden Berghe [email]
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WoRMS:note:80119