dcsimg
Life » » Animals » » Nematodes » » Trichinellidae »

Trichinella nativa Britov & Boev 1972

Brief Summary

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL staff

    A number of Trichinella nematode (roundworm) species infect humans and cause trichinellosis (trichinosis). In addition to the classical agent T. spiralis (found worldwide in many carnivorous and omnivorous animals), several other species of Trichinella are now recognized, including T. pseudospiralis (from mammals and birds worldwide), T. nativa (from Arctic bears and walruses), T. nelsoni (from African predators and scavengers), T. britovi (from carnivores, pigs, and horses of temperate Europe and western Asia and northern and western Africa ), T. murelli (from bears and horses in North America), and T. papuae (from wild and domestic pigs and saltwater crocodiles in Papua New Guinea and Thailand). Trichinella zimbabwensis is found in crocodiles and monitor lizards in Africa but there are no known associations of this species with human disease.

    Trichinellosis occurs worldwide, but is most common in parts of Europe and the United States. Adult worms and encysted larvae develop within a single vertebrate host and an infected animal serves as a definitive host and potential intermediate host. A second host is required to perpetuate the life cycle. The domestic cycle most often involved pigs and anthropophilic rodents, but other domestic animals such as horses can be involved. In the sylvatic cycle, the range of infected animals is great, but animals most often associated as sources of human infection are bear, moose, and wild boar.

    Trichinellosis is caused by the ingestion of undercooked meat containing encysted larvae (except for T. pseudospiralis and T. papuae, which do not encyst) of Trichinella species. After exposure to gastric acid and pepsin, the larvae are released from the cysts and invade the small bowel mucosa where they develop into adult worms. Females are 2.2 mm in length; males 1.2 mm. The life span in the small bowel is about four weeks. After 1 week, the females release larvae that migrate to striated muscles, where they encyst. Diagnosis is usually made based on clinical symptoms and is confirmed by serology or identification of encysted or non-encysted larvae in biopsy or autopsy specimens.

    Gottstein et al. (2009) reviewed the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control of trichinellosis.

    (Centers for Disease Control Parasites and Health website; Gottstein et al. 2009)

    Trichinella nativa: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Trichinella nativa is a nematode worm, one of the species of the Trichinella genus, found in arctic and subarctic regions.

Comprehensive Description

    Trichinella nativa
    provided by wikipedia

    Trichinella nativa is a nematode worm, one of the species of the Trichinella genus, found in arctic and subarctic regions.

    Biology

    It is highly pathogenic and has a high resistance to freezing. It is encapsulated, and infects a wide variety of mammals and birds. Its lifecycle and pathogenesis are similar to Trichinella spiralis; T. nativa also can cause trichinosis.

    This nematode infects the muscles of mammals such as the Arctic fox and the polar bear. To complete its lifecycle, the flesh of its host must be eaten by some other mammal. In the Arctic, the corpses of animals that die may get frozen and later be consumed by scavengers. This worm remains viable even after being frozen at −18 °C (0 °F) for four years.[1]

    References

    1. ^ Leung, Tommy (2013-11-05). "The parasite a cricket's nightmares are made of". The Conversation. Retrieved 2015-05-11..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}


    Stub iconThis Enoplea nematode (or roundworm-) related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
     title=

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by EOL authors

    The geographic distribution T. nativa apparently includes the Nordic and Baltic countries and possibly several areas above 40 N latitude, such as central and northeastern Asia, central Europe, the eastern part of Canada, the seashore of Alaska, and the southwestern seashore of Greenland (Feidas et al. 2014; see also Masuoka et al. 2009).

General Ecology

    General Ecology
    provided by EOL authors

    Trichinella nativa is a nematode worm parasite that is known to infect mainly walruses, foxes, bears, and other Arctic and sub-Arctic carnivores (e.g., Masuoka et al. 2009; Larrat et al. 2012). Trichinella nativa is the most frequent Trichinella species detected in arctic wildlife and also the main species seen in Norwegian fauna. The adaptation of T. nativa to a cold climate is reflected by the well-documented freeze tolerance of its muscle larvae (Davidson et al. 2008 and references therein).

Risks

    Risks
    provided by EOL authors

    The parasitic nematode worm Trichinella nativa is best known as the cause of trichinellosis in native people in Arctic regions who consume raw or undercooked Walrus meat (e.g., see Larrat et al. 2012).