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Grey Cassia

Senna artemisioides Isely

Brief Summary

    Senna artemisioides: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia
    "Blunt-leaved senna" (and spelling variants) redirects here. This name is also used for Senna obtusifolia, a large shrub common in warm humid regions.

    Senna artemisioides is a flowering plant in the family Fabaceae. It is commonly known as silver senna, silver cassia or feathery cassia - although "cassia" generally refers to the largest-growing Cassiinae. Some of its distinct subspecies also have common names of their own. This plant is endemic to Australia, where it is found in all mainland states and territories.

Comprehensive Description

    Senna artemisioides
    provided by wikipedia
    "Blunt-leaved senna" (and spelling variants) redirects here. This name is also used for Senna obtusifolia, a large shrub common in warm humid regions.

    Senna artemisioides is a flowering plant in the family Fabaceae. It is commonly known as silver senna,[1] silver cassia or feathery cassia - although "cassia" generally refers to the largest-growing Cassiinae. Some of its distinct subspecies also have common names of their own. This plant is endemic to Australia, where it is found in all mainland states and territories.

    Description

    This is a shrub that grows up to 3 metres in height. It has pinnate leaves with between 1 and 8 pairs of leaflets. It produces an abundance of yellow flowers in winter and spring which are about 1.5 cm in diameter, followed by 2 to 7 cm long flat green pods which age to dark brown.

    The species adapts to a wide range of climatic conditions, although it is susceptible to frost, particularly when young. It prefers dry, well drained sites with full sun. As an ornamental plant, it is propagated readily from seed, which should first be soaked in boiling water.[2]

    This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[3]

    Taxonomy and systematics

    The species was first described in 1825 by Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré based on work by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle and placed in Cassia, but nowadays it has been moved to Senna. However, for a long time this plant was erroneously known as Cassia eremophila which is a true species of Cassia called desert cassia, described by Julius Rudolph Theodor Vogel.

    A large number of formerly independent species are provisionally considered subspecies of S. artemisioides:

    • ssp. alicia Randell
    • ssp. artemisioides
    • ssp. filifolia Randell
    • ssp. helmsii (Symon) RandellBlunt-leaved cassia
    • ssp. oligophylla (F.Muell.) RandellBlunt-leaved cassia
    • ssp. petiolaris Randell woody cassia
    • ssp. quadrifolia Randell
    (Senna quadrifolia Burm. is a synonym of Chamaecrista absus)
    • ssp. sturtii (R.Br.) RandellSturt's cassia[4]
    • ssp. zygophylla (Benth.) Randell

    Some hybridogenic subspecies have also been named:

    • nothosubsp. × artemisioides [5]
    • ssp. × coriacea (Benth.) Randell[6]
    • nothosubsp. × coriacea (Benth.) Randell[7]
    (Cassia coriacea Benth. is a synonym of Chamaecrista coriacea)
    • nothosubsp. × sturtii (R.Br.) Randell[8]

    In addition, there are apparently at least 2 undescribed taxa:

    • Senna artemisioides "James Range (P.L.Latz 18528)"
    • Senna artemisioides "Kuyunba (B.Pitts 113)"

    Altogether, S. artemisioides might be best considered a form taxon whose phylogenetic diversity is still largely unresolved.

    References

    1. ^ "Senna artemisioides". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 10 November 2015..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "Senna artemisoides". Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants (ASGAP). Retrieved 2007-12-22.
    3. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Senna artemisioides". Retrieved 4 July 2013.
    4. ^ "Cassia sturtii R.Br". PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2007-12-22.
    5. ^ "Senna artemisioides (Gaudich. ex DC.) Randell nothosubsp. X artemisioides". Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 2007-12-22.
    6. ^ "Senna artemisioides subsp. X coriacea (Benth.) Randell". Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 2007-12-22.
    7. ^ "Senna artemisioides nothosubsp. X coriacea (Benth.) Randell". Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 2007-12-22.
    8. ^ "Senna artemisioides nothosubsp. X sturtii (R.Br.) Randell". Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 2007-12-22.

Morphology

    Physical Description
    provided by USDA PLANTS text
    Perennial, Shrubs, Woody throughout, Stems woody below, or from woody crown or caudex, Stems erect or ascending, Stems or branches arching, spreading or decumbent, Stems less than 1 m tall, Stems 1-2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs sparsely to densely hairy, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Extrafloral nectary glands on petiole, Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous, Stipules deciduous, Leaves compound, Leaves even pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 5-9, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Leaves coriaceous, Flowers in axillary clusters or few-floweredracemes, 2-6 flowers, Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescence axillary, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers act inomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Petals orange or yellow, Stamens 9-10, Stamens heteromorphic, graded in size, Stamens completely free, separate, Filaments glabrous, Anthers opening by basal or terminal pores or slits, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit stipitate, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit tardily or weakly dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruit strongly curved, falcate, bent, or lunate, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit compressed between seeds, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 11-many seeded, Seed with elliptical line or depression, pleurogram, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.