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Brief Summary

    Apidae: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia
    "Apid" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Apis.

    Apidae is the largest family within the superfamily Apoidea, containing at least 5700 species of bees. The family includes some of the most commonly seen bees, including bumblebees and honey bees, but also includes stingless bees (also used for honey production), carpenter bees, orchid bees, cuckoo bees, and a number of other less widely known groups. Many are valuable pollinators in natural habitats and for agricultural crops.

    Brief Summary
    provided by Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico
    Species of this family are found throughout much of the world from the high Arctic latitudes to or near the southern limits of the major land masses of the Southern Hemisphere. The family consists of two subfamilies, the Bombinae which includes the orchid bees (Euglossini) and bumblebees (Bombini) and the Apinae which contains the stingless honeybees (Meliponini) and the familiar stinging honeybees (Apini). Some of these bees are of exceptional value to man not only because of their production of honey and other products, but also because they pollinate many agricultural and other plants. Although the family contains some social parasites (e.g., Aglae, Exaerete and Psithyrus) and nest robbers (e.g., Lestrimelitta), the pollen-collecting females, unlike those of any other family of bees, transport pollen by means of specialized pollen baskets (corbiculae) located on the hind tibiae. Virtually all stages of social development are exhibited by the family. These include all of the highly eusocial bees (Apinae) which live in perennial colonies as well as the primitively eusocial bumblebees and the solitary and parasocial Euglossini. ~In America north of Mexico the family is represented most conspicuously by the introduced European honeybee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus) and the many native species of bumblebees. The only other member of this family present in the United States is a species of the Neotropical genus Eulaema which was found years ago in the vicinity of Brownsville, Texas. In spite of repeated attempts to introduce various species of meliponine bees into the United States none of these introductions has been successful.

Comprehensive Description

    Apidae
    provided by wikipedia
    "Apid" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Apis.

    Apidae is the largest family within the superfamily Apoidea, containing at least 5700 species of bees. The family includes some of the most commonly seen bees, including bumblebees and honey bees, but also includes stingless bees (also used for honey production), carpenter bees, orchid bees, cuckoo bees, and a number of other less widely known groups.[1][2] Many are valuable pollinators in natural habitats and for agricultural crops.[3]

    Taxonomy

    In addition to its historical classification (honey bees, bumble bees, stingless bees and orchid bees), the family Apidae presently includes all the genera formerly placed in the families Anthophoridae and Ctenoplectridae.[3] Although the most visible members of Apidae are social, the vast majority of apid bees are solitary, including a number of cleptoparasitic species.[4]

    The old family Apidae contained four tribes (Apinae: Apini, Euglossini and Bombinae: Bombini, Meliponini) which have been reclassified as tribes of the subfamily Apinae, along with all of the former tribes of Anthophoridae (subfamily Athophorinae) and the former family Ctenoplectridae, which was demoted to tribe status. The trend to move groups down in taxonomic rank has been taken further by a 2005 Brazilian classification that places all existing bee families together under the name "Apidae",[5] but it has not been widely accepted in the literature since that time.

    Subfamilies

    Apinae

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    Amegilla cingulata—a subfamily Apinae digger bee species, of Australian blue banded bees, approaching tomato flower

    The subfamily Apinae contains a diversity of 15 tribe lineages, the majority of which are solitary and whose nests are simple burrows in the soil.

    However, honey bees, stingless bees, and bumblebees are eusocial or colonial. They are sometimes believed to have each developed this independently, and show notable differences in such characteristics as communication between workers and methods of nest construction.

    Tribes include:[2]

    Nomadinae

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    Subfamily Nomadinae cuckoo bee species, on flower.

    The subfamily Nomadinae, or cuckoo bees, has 31 genera in 10 tribes which are all cleptoparasites in the nests of other bees.

    Tribes include:[2]

    Xylocopinae

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    Xylocopa violacea—a subfamily Xylocopinae carpenter bee, on flower.

    The subfamily Xylocopinae, which includes carpenter bees, are mostly solitary, though they tend to be gregarious. Some tribe lineages, such as the Allodapini, contain eusocial species.

    Most members of this subfamily make nests in plant stems or wood.

    Tribes include:[2]

    See also

    References

    1. ^ Danforth, Bryan N.; Cardinal, Sophie; Praz, Christophe; Almeida, Eduardo A.B.; Michez, Denis (2013). "The Impact of Molecular Data on Our Understanding of Bee Phylogeny and Evolution". Annual Review of Entomology. 58 (1): 57–78. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153633. ISSN 0066-4170..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ a b c d BugGuide.Net: the Family Apidae (of bees) . accessed 6.23.2013
    3. ^ a b [Michener, Charles D. (2007) The bees of the world. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Londres.]
    4. ^ [O'Toole, Christopher, Raw, Anthony (1999) Bees of the world. Cassell Illustrated. ISBN 0-8160-5712-5]
    5. ^ Gonçalves, Rodrigo B. (2005). "Higher-level bee classifications (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato)". Melo, Gabriel AR, and"Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. 22 (1): 153–159.
    6. ^ a b Engel, M. S.; Alqarni, A. S.; Shebl, M. A. (2017). "Discovery of the bee tribe Tarsaliini in Arabia (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with the description of a new species". American Museum Novitates. 3877: 1–28. doi:10.1206/3877.1.
    .mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}
    • Arnett, R. H., Jr. (2000). "Ch. 25: Hymenoptera (Wasps, Ants, and Bees)". American insects (2nd ed.). CRC Press. pp. 531–614. ISBN 0-8493-0212-9.
    • Borror, D. J.; DeLong, D. M.; Triplehorn, C. A. (1976). An introduction to the study of insects (4th ed.). Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0-03-088406-3.
    • Mitchell, T. B. (1962). Bees of the Eastern United States. 2. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. Tech. Bul. No. 152.

Citizen Science links

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    provided by EOL authors
    The Goal of Native Buzz

    Native Buzz is acitizen science projectcreated by the University of Florida (UF)Honey Bee Research and Extension Lab. Our goal is to learn more about the nesting preferences, diversity and distribution of our native solitary bees and wasps, to share the information gained and to provide a forum for those interested in participating in the science and art of native beekeeping (and wasp-keeping!). Here at University of Florida Native Buzz you can keep track of your own Native Buzz Nest Site and see the results of other participant’s nest sites.

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