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Tricholoma sulphureum (Bull.) P. Kumm. 1871

Brief Summary

    Tricholoma sulphureum: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Tricholoma sulphureum, also known as sulphur knight or gas agaric, is an inedible or mildly poisonous mushroom found in woodlands in Europe. It has a distinctive bright yellow colour and an unusual smell likened to coal gas. It occurs in deciduous woodlands in Europe from spring to autumn.

Comprehensive Description

    Tricholoma sulphureum
    provided by wikipedia

    Tricholoma sulphureum Tricholoma sulphureum 031123w.jpg Tricholoma sulphureum
    in woodland, France Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi Division: Basidiomycota Class: Agaricomycetes Order: Agaricales Family: Tricholomataceae Genus: Tricholoma Species: T. sulphureum Binomial name Tricholoma sulphureum
    (Bull. ex Fr.) P.Kumm. (1871)

    Tricholoma sulphureum, also known as sulphur knight or gas agaric, is an inedible or mildly poisonous mushroom found in woodlands in Europe. It has a distinctive bright yellow colour and an unusual smell likened to coal gas. It occurs in deciduous woodlands in Europe from spring to autumn.

    Taxonomy

    Tricholoma sulphureum was first described in 1784 by the French botanist Pierre Bulliard and given the name Agaricus sulphureus, before being placed in the genus Tricholoma by German mycologist Paul Kummer in 1871. The specific epithet sulfǔrěus derived from the Latin 'of or pertaining to sulfur'.[1] It belongs to a complex of similar foul-smelling species such as Tricholoma inamoenum. Another related species, T. bufonium, may be an intraspecific variant.

    Description

    It has a convex cap with a vague umbo up to 8 cm (3 in) across, sulphur yellow in colour. The thick, sinuate gills, stipe and flesh are similarly bright yellow. The smell, caused by the chemical skatole, is enough to distinguish it from other yellow fungi. John Ramsbottom reports that it has a complex smell that has been likened variously to Jasmine, Narcissus, Hyacinth, Hemerocallis flava, Lilac, Tagetes, decayed hemp or coal gas, as well as described as nauseating or foetid.[2] The taste is bitter.

    It could be confused with the darker T. equestre, though the latter has a sticky cap, white flesh, thin crowded gills, and a mealy smell.[3] However this latter species which was formerly considered a good edible mushroom, has itself caused cases of poisoning.

    Distribution and habitat

    Tricholoma sulphureum is found in deciduous woods, particularly beech, and can occur anytime from spring until autumn.[3] It is found across Europe and has been confirmed as far east as China.[4] It is also distributed in North America,[5] where it grows also with conifers. It is commonly known as the "Stinker" or "Sulfur Trich". In Turkey, it is considered critically endangered.[6]

    Toxicity

    The fungus is usually classified as inedible in guidebooks, although there have been reports of poisoning. Symptoms are predominantly gastrointestinal with some neurological.[7]

    See also

    References

    1. ^ Simpson DP (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ *Ramsbottom J (1953). Mushrooms & Toadstools. Collins. ISBN.
    3. ^ a b Haas H (1969). The Young Specialist looks at Fungi. Burke. p. 148. ISBN 0-222-79409-7.
    4. ^ Deng H, Yao YJ (2005). "Revision of three species of Tricholoma reported from China". Mycotaxon. 92: 77–84. ISSN 0093-4666.
    5. ^ Bessette AE, Bessette AR, Roody WC, Trudell SA (2012). "Tricholomas of North America".
    6. ^ Çinar H, Sermenli HB, Işiloğlu M (2014). "Some critically endangered species From Turkey" (PDF). Fungal Conservation (4): 26–28.
    7. ^ Veselský J, Dvorák J (1981). "Über den Verlauf einer Vergiftung durch den Schwefelgelben Ritterling - Tricholoma sulphureum (Bull. ex Fr.) Kumm". Cĕská Mykologie (in German). 35: 114–15.