dcsimg

Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Perennial herb (ours). Stipules 0. Leaves opposite. Flowers showy, in compact, terminal corymbs. Sepals fused below into a tube, 5-toothed above. Petals 5, with a long claw and an entire or slightly emarginate, limb, with 2 small blunt scales present at base. Stamens 10. Styles 2. Capsule many-seeded, opening by 4(-5) ± unequal teeth.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Saponaria Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/genus.php?genus_id=575
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flora of Zimbabwe

Saponaria

provided by wikipedia EN

Saponaria is a genus of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae. They are native to Europe and Asia, and are commonly known as soapworts.[1]

They are herbaceous perennials and annuals, some with woody bases. The flowers are abundant, five-petalled and usually in shades of pink[2] or white.[1]

The most familiar species might be common soapwort (S. officinalis), which is native to Eurasia but is known in much of the world as an introduced species, often a weed, and sometimes a cultivated ornamental plant.[1] The genus name Saponaria derives from the Latin sapo ("soap") and -aria ("pertaining to"),[1] and at least one species, S. officinalis, has been used to make soap.[3] It contains saponins, and a liquid soap could be produced by soaking the leaves in water.[1] This soap is still used to clean delicate antique tapestries.[4]

The genus is closely related to Lychnis and Silene, being distinguished from these by having only two (not three or five) styles in the flower.[2] It is also related to Gypsophila, but its calyx is cylindrical rather than bell-shaped.[5]

Saponaria species are eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera, including the Lychnis and Coleophora saponariella, which is exclusive to the genus.

Diversity

There are 30[5][6] to 40[1][7][8] species in the genus.

Species include:[9]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Thieret, John W.; Rabeler, Richard K. (2005). "Saponaria". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 5. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  2. ^ a b RHS A–Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. ISBN 978-1405332965.
  3. ^ Coombes, A. J. (2012). The A to Z of Plant Names. USA: Timber Press. p. 265. ISBN 9781604691962.
  4. ^ Elliot, Doug (July 1995). Wild Roots: Forager's Guide to the Edible and Medicinal Roots, Tubers, Corms and Rhizomes of North America. ISBN 978-0892815388.
  5. ^ a b Ghazanfar, Shahina A.; Nasir, Yasin J. "Saponaria". Flora of Pakistan – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  6. ^ Lu, Dequan; Lidén, Magnus; Oxelman, Bengt. "Saponaria". Flora of China. 6 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  7. ^ Jürgens, Andreas; Witt, Taina; Gottsberger, Gerhard (2003). "Flower scent composition in Dianthus and Saponaria species (Caryophyllaceae) and its relevance for pollination biology and taxonomy" (PDF). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 31 (4): 345–57. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(02)00173-4.
  8. ^ Hartman, Ronald L.; Rabeler, Richard K. (2012). "Saponaria". In Jepson Flora Project (ed.). Jepson eFlora. The Jepson Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley.
  9. ^ Saponaria. GRIN.
  10. ^ Mutlu, B. (2006). "Saponaria bargyliana Gombault (Caryophyllaceae): a new record for Turkey and analysis of its morphological characters with related species". Turkish Journal of Botany (30): 63–70. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29.
  11. ^ Vural, M.; Duman, H.; Aytaç, Z.; Adigüzel, N. (2006). "Saponaria karapinarensis, Senecio salsuginea and Centaurea tuzgoluensis, three new species from central Anatolia, Turkey". Belgian Journal of Botany. 139 (2): 252–60. JSTOR 20794613.
  12. ^ Ataslar, E. (2004). "Morphological and anatomical investigations on the Saponaria kotschyi Boiss.(Caryophyllaceae)". Turkish Journal of Botany. 28: 193–99. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29.
  13. ^ Tribsch, Andreas; Schönswetter, Peter; Stuessy, Tod (2002). "Saponaria pumila (Caryophyllaceae) and the ice age in the European Alps". American Journal of Botany. 89 (12): 2024–33. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.12.2024. PMID 21665631.
  14. ^ Dönmez, A. A. (2009). "Saponaria suffruticosa (Caryophyllaceae): An enigmatic species from south-west Asia on border of Turkey and Iraq" (PDF). Hacettepe J Biol. 37 (3): 181–87. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-29.

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Saponaria: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Saponaria is a genus of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae. They are native to Europe and Asia, and are commonly known as soapworts.

They are herbaceous perennials and annuals, some with woody bases. The flowers are abundant, five-petalled and usually in shades of pink or white.

The most familiar species might be common soapwort (S. officinalis), which is native to Eurasia but is known in much of the world as an introduced species, often a weed, and sometimes a cultivated ornamental plant. The genus name Saponaria derives from the Latin sapo ("soap") and -aria ("pertaining to"), and at least one species, S. officinalis, has been used to make soap. It contains saponins, and a liquid soap could be produced by soaking the leaves in water. This soap is still used to clean delicate antique tapestries.

The genus is closely related to Lychnis and Silene, being distinguished from these by having only two (not three or five) styles in the flower. It is also related to Gypsophila, but its calyx is cylindrical rather than bell-shaped.

Saponaria species are eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera, including the Lychnis and Coleophora saponariella, which is exclusive to the genus.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN