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Carolina Mantis

Stagmomantis carolina (Johansson 1763)

Brief Summary

    Carolina mantis: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The Carolina mantis (Stagmomantis carolina) is a species of praying mantis of the subfamily Stagmomantinae.

    Sexual cannibalism occurs in roughly one quarter of all intersexual encounters of this species, though specimens of this species will engage in cannibalism regardless of age or gender if the opportunity presents itself.

     src= Gray adult female in human hand

    Carolina mantis oothecae can be purchased in garden supply centers as a means of biological control of pest insects. However, only those labeled as this species should be released because most oothecae sold in the United States belong to the invasive Chinese Mantis. It is the state insect of South Carolina.

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors

    The Carolina Mantis, Stagmomantis carolina, is a medium-sized mantid native to North and Central America. This species has a long thorax, and the head and thorax combined are almost as long as the abdomen. The wings are relatively short, especially in females, and don't reach the tip of the abdomen. The color ranges from mottled grayish-brown to greenish-yellow with bright green wing covers and legs (Blatchley 1920, Milne & Milne 1980, Rau & Rau 1913).

    Like other mantids, this species is a generalist predator of arthropods, but it has also been reported to attack small frogs and lizards (Burmeister 1838, Kevan 1985, Rau & Rau 1913). It grabs its prey with its enlarged, raptorial forelegs. Both the femur and tibia are adorned with strong spines to provide a secure hold on the prey (Resh & Cardé 2003).

    Cannibalism has been observed both in nymphs and in adult females (Howard 1886, Rau & Rau 1913, Roberts 1928). However, reports of frequent sexual cannibalism (females devouring their mates) are probably greatly exaggerated (Prete et al. 1999).

    Females deposit eggs on plant stems, surrounded by an ootheca. It is formed from a liquid substance secreted by large abdominal glands that is beaten into a froth by movements of the ovipositor blades. Upon exposure to the air, it quickly hardens to form a hard, protective case (Breland 1941, Rau & Rau 1913).

Comprehensive Description

    Carolina mantis
    provided by wikipedia
     src=
    This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (August 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

    The Carolina mantis (Stagmomantis carolina) is a species of praying mantis of the subfamily Stagmomantinae.

    Sexual cannibalism occurs in roughly one quarter of all intersexual encounters of this species, though specimens of this species will engage in cannibalism regardless of age or gender if the opportunity presents itself.[2]

     src=
    Gray adult female in human hand

    Carolina mantis oothecae can be purchased in garden supply centers as a means of biological control of pest insects. However, only those labeled as this species should be released because most oothecae sold in the United States belong to the invasive Chinese Mantis. It is the state insect of South Carolina.

    Range

    Stagmomantis carolina is native to South America, Central America and North America.[1] Southern United States, Central-Southeastern USA, Buenos Aires[1] Mexico,[1][3] Panama, Trinidad, Venezuela,[1] Suriname[1] Belize, Costa Rica, Nicaragua,[1][1] French Guiana, and Guatemala.

    Description

    Adult females are 47 to 60 millimeters(2-2.5 Inches) in length while adult males are usually about 54 millimeters(2.2 Inches) in length. 1st instar nymphs are 7-12 millimeters(.028-.047 Inches) in length. When the nymphs eat more their abdomens get much longer. The Carolina mantis has a dusty brown, gray, or green color useful as camouflage in certain environments. The Carolina mantis' color varies because the nymphs are able to adjust their color to match the environment they are in at the time of molting. They can adjust their color over each molt, if necessary, until they reach their final molt to adulthood. An unusual trait is that its wings only extend three quarters of the way down the abdomen in mature females; this trait is also seen in Iris oratoria, which can be distinguished by the large eyespots on the hind wings (inner-wings) of both adult male and female Iris oratoria. Both adult male and female Stagmomantis carolina have a dark coloured dot on each of their forewings (outer-wings) which may be partially hidden in a brown or dark colour morph individual.

    Synonyms

    The species was first described in Centuria Insectorum (1763) as Gryllus carolina.

    • Gryllus carolinus
    • Stagmomantis americana (Taylor, 1862)
    • Stagmomantis conspersa (Burmeister, 1838)
    • Stagmomantis conspurcata (Serville, 1839)
    • Stagmomantis cuticularis (Serville, 1839)
    • Stagmomantis dimidiata (Burmeister, 1838)[3]
    • Stagmomantis ferox (Saussure, 1859)
    • Stagmomantis fuscata (Weber, 1801)
    • Stagmomantis inquinata (Serville, 1839)
    • Stagmomantis irrorata (Johansson, 1763)
    • Stagmomantis maculosa (Chopard, 1912)
    • Stagmomantis nordica (Giglio-Tos, 1917)
    • Stagmomantis polita (Giglio-Tos, 1917)
    • Stagmomantis simplex (Giglio-Tos, 1917)
    • Mantis stolli (Saussure, 1869)[3]
    • Stagmomantis thoracica (Rehn, 1911)
    • Mantis wheelerii (Thomas, 1875)[1]

    [3]

    References

    1. ^ a b c d e f g h i [1] Mantodea.speciesifle.org species Stagmomantis carolina (Johansson, 1763) Retrieved Date:2014/June/27
    2. ^ Mike Maxwell. "Sexual cannibalism, mate choice, and sperm competition in praying mantids". Archived from the original on 2007-12-22..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    3. ^ a b c d Blatchley, Willis Stanley (1920). Orthoptera of northeastern America: with especial reference to the faunas of Indiana and Florida. The Nature Publishing Company. pp. 117–120.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    This species is found in southern North America, from the state of New Jersey west to Illinois, Missouri, Texas, and Arizona, and down through Mexico to Central America.

    Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

Morphology

    Morphology
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The Carolina mantid grows up to be about 4-7 cm in length with a large head and abdomen. They have a pair of large forelegs that are serrated and spiny and folded back like a pocket knife. The body color is a tannish-brown with wings that are light green. They hold their forelegs up in a praying position to grab prey. Adult males are smaller and more slender than females, and have longer wings.

    Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

    Sexual Dimorphism: female larger

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Mantids are found in woodlands and meadows, especially around flowering plants.

    Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; scrub forest

Trophic Strategy

    Trophic Strategy
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The Carolina mantid usually uses a "sit-and-wait" tactic of obtaining its prey. It waits quietly, and attacks any insects that come near, grabbing them with it's forelegs. Often it will wait near a flower and attack the insects that come to the flower to feed. Occasionally mantids will stalk prey, but this is not common. Ants are one of the prey types that S. carolina will sometimes chase (Preston-Mafham 1993). This species, like all mantids, is cannibalistic. Mantid nymphs and adults will eat other.

    Animal Foods: insects

    Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore )

Reproduction

    Reproduction
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Stories of mantid cannibalism during mating are well known, but frequently exagerated. Female mantids do sometimes attack and eat males during courtship or mating. This kind of cannibalism in Stagmomantis carolina has only been observed scientifically in the laboratory, and it is not known whether it occurs in natural conditions. It is partly a function of female hunger: well-fed females are much less likely to attack their mates. The voracious hunger of mantids is no surprise -- each female will produce one or more egg pods, each of which weighs about a third of her body weight. She needs a lot of food to make that reproductive effort, and male mantids are one of the largest and most easily acquired prey around her.

    Females lay their eggs in a case formed from a liquid foam secreted from abdominal glands. The foam quickly hardens to form a protective shell. In temperate North America, all adult mantids die in the winter, and only eggs survive to the following spring. There is one report of overlapping generations of S. carolina occuring in Florida.

    Key Reproductive Features: semelparous ; seasonal breeding ; sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The Carolina Mantid is common insect in the United States. (Lyon 2000)

    US Federal List: no special status

    CITES: no special status

Benefits

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    Mantids eat all kinds of insects and spiders, some of which are themselves beneficial, including useful pollinators like bees and flies, and spiders that attack aphids.

    Benefits
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    This species consumes many insects, including a large number that are agricultural pests. It is widely sold for use in gardens, though the effectiveness of mantids as biological control agents is not known.

    Positive Impacts: controls pest population

Other Articles

    Untitled
    provided by Animal Diversity Web

    The common name comes from the Greek word "mantis" which means prophet. They are always in a striking position with their arms folded in prayer.

    Praying mantises occur all over the world, and there over 1000 species that vary widely in size and appearance.

    In the United States, mantids are most commonly seen during September and early October, when they are largest, and most actively pursuing reproduction.

    In the northern U.S. the commonly seen mantids are two introduced species: the Chinese mantid, Tenodera aridifolia, and the European mantid, Mantis religiosa.