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Nephromataceae

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The Peltigeraceae are a family of lichens in the order Peltigerales. The Peltigeraceae, which contains 15 genera and about 600 species, has recently (2018) been emended to include the families Lobariaceae and Nephromataceae. Many Peltigeraceae species have large and conspicuous, leathery thalli. They largely occur in cool-temperate to tropical montane climates. Tripartite thalli involving fungus, green algae and cyanobacteria are common in this family.

Taxonomy

The family Peltigeraceae was circumscribed by Belgian botanist Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier in 1822.[2] Using a temporal approach that uses time-calibrated chronograms to identify and define temporal bands for comparable ordinal and family ranks in the Lecanoromycetes, the families Lobariaceae and Nephromataceae were synonymized with Peltigeraceae in 2018.[3] In a later critical review of the use of this method for the biological classification of lichens, Robert Lücking considered this merge justified based on several characteristics shared by all three groups. These include "the leathery structure of their usually large and conspicuous thalli, apothecial morphology and anatomy, ascus and ascospore type, and the fact that tripartite thalli or photosymbiodemes involving green algae and cyanobacteria are common".[4] The proposed synonymy was also accepted in a 2020 review of fungal classification.[1]

Since the two synonymized families have been widely used, and have been accepted previously as phylogenetically distinct clades within older families, Lumbsch and Leavitt proposed the following subfamilies of Peltigeraceae, which "allows recognition of these well-established and monophyletic clades while avoiding confusion due to incomparable ranks of clades."[5]

Lobarioideae Lumbsch & S.D.Leav. (2019)
Nephromatoideae Lumbsch & S.D.Leav. (2019)

According to Lumbsch and Leavitt, Peltigeroideae becomes an available name that could be used to include the Peltigeraceae sensu stricto.[5]

Genera

A 2020 estimate placed 15 genera and about 600 species in the Peltigeraceae,[1] but two new monotypic genera have since been added to the family.[6][7]

  • Lobarioideae
  • Nephromatoideae
  • Peltigeroideae

Uses

Many species of Peltigeraceae have been used in studies on environmental pollution and have been utilized as indicator species for pollution, woodland management, and ecological continuity.

Conservation

As of March 2022, Peltigeraceae species that have been assessed for the global IUCN Red List are all from the genus Sticta: S. deyana (critically endangered, 2020);[17] S. carolinensis (vulnerable, 2020);[18] S. alpinotropica (endangered, 2017);[19] and S. fragilinata (endangered, 2020).[20]

References

  1. ^ a b c Wijayawardene, Nalin; Hyde, Kevin; LKT, Al-Ani; S, Dolatabadi; Stadler, Marc; Haelewaters, Danny; Tsurykau, Andrei; Mesic, Armin; Navathe, Sudhir; Papp, Viktor; Oliveira Fiuza, Patrícia; Vázquez, Víctor; Gautam, Ajay; Becerra, Alejandra G.; Ekanayaka, Anusha; K. C., Rajeshkumar; Bezerra, Jadson; Matočec, Neven; Maharachchikumbura, Sajeewa; Suetrong, Satinee (2020). "Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa". Mycosphere. 11: 1060–1456. doi:10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8. S2CID 218933904.
  2. ^ Dumortier, B.C. (1822). Commentationes botanicae (in French). Tournay: C. Casterman-Dieu. pp. 68, 78. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.10534.
  3. ^ Kraichak, Ekaphan; Huang, Jen-Pan; Nelsen, Matthew; Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten (2018). "A revised classification of orders and families in the two major subclasses of Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota) based on a temporal approach". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 188 (3): 233–249. doi:10.1093/botlinnean/boy060.
  4. ^ Lücking, Robert (2019). "Stop the abuse of time! Strict temporal banding is not the future of rank-based classifications in fungi (including lichens) and other organisms". Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 38 (3): 199–253. doi:10.1080/07352689.2019.1650517. S2CID 202859785.
  5. ^ a b Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Leavitt, Steven D. (2019). "Introduction of subfamily names for four clades in Cladoniaceae and Peltigeraceae (Lecanoromycetes)". Mycotaxon. 134 (2): 271–273. doi:10.5248/134.271. S2CID 199630053.
  6. ^ a b Simon, Antoine; Lücking, Robert; Moncada, Bibiana; Mercado-Díaz, Joel A.; Bungartz, Frank; da Silva Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia; Gumboski, Emerson Luiz; de Azevedo Martins, Suzana Maria; Spielmann, Adriano; Parker, Dinah; Goffinet, Bernard (2020). "Emmanuelia, a new genus of lobarioid lichen-forming fungi (Ascomycota: Peltigerales): phylogeny and synopsis of accepted species". Plant and Fungal Systematics. 65 (1): 76–94. doi:10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0004.
  7. ^ a b Stone, Daphne F.; McCune, Bruce; Pardo-De la Hoz, Carlos J.; Magain, Nicolas; Miadlikowska, Jolanta (2021). "Sinuicella denisonii, a new genus and species in the Peltigeraceae from western North America". The Lichenologist. 53 (2): 185–192. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000584. hdl:2268/260843. S2CID 232271452.
  8. ^ Link, Heinrich Friedrich (1833). Handbuch zur Erkennung der nutzbarsten und am häufigsten vorkommenden Gewächse (in Latin). Vol. 3. Berlin: Spenerschen Buchhandlung. p. 177.
  9. ^ a b Moncada, Bibiana; Lücking, Robert; Betancourt Macuase, Luisa (2013). "Phylogeny of the Lobariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Peltigerales), with a reappraisal of the genus Lobariella". Lichenologist. 45 (2): 203–263. doi:10.1017/S0024282912000825. S2CID 86082520.
  10. ^ Clements, F.E. (1909). The Genera of Fungi. Pennsylvania: H. W. Wilson Company. pp. 82, 175.
  11. ^ Vainio, E.A. (1890). "Étude sur la classification naturelle et la morphologie des Lichens du Brésil. Pars prima". Acta Societatis Pro Fauna et Flora Fennica (in Latin). 7 (1): 182.
  12. ^ De Notaris, G. (1846). "Frammenti lichenografici di un lavoro inedito". Giornale Botanico Italiano (in Italian). 2 (1): 174–224 [178].
  13. ^ Galloway, David John (2015). "Contributions to a history of New Zealand lichenology 5*. James Murray (1923–1961)". Phytotaxa. 198 (1): 1. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.198.1.1. ISSN 1179-3163.
  14. ^ Luyken, Johann Albert (1809). Tentamen Historiae Lichenum in Genere, cui Accedunt Primae Lineae Distributionis Novae (in Latin). Gottingen: Typis Henrici Dieterich. p. 92.
  15. ^ Willdenow, C.L. von (1787). Florae Berolinensis Prodromus (in Latin). Berlin: Impensis Wilhelmi Viewegii. p. 347.
  16. ^ Acharius, E. (1808). "Förteckning på de i Sverige våxande arter af Lafvarnas Familj". Kongliga Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar (in Latin). 29: 228–237.
  17. ^ Lendemer, J. (22 July 2020). "Sticta deyana". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  18. ^ Lendemer, J. (1 August 2020). "Sticta deyana". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  19. ^ Thor, G.; Aptroot, A. (30 August 2017). "Sticta alpinotropica". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  20. ^ Lendemer, J. (15 July 2020). "Sticta fragilinata". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
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Nephromataceae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Peltigeraceae are a family of lichens in the order Peltigerales. The Peltigeraceae, which contains 15 genera and about 600 species, has recently (2018) been emended to include the families Lobariaceae and Nephromataceae. Many Peltigeraceae species have large and conspicuous, leathery thalli. They largely occur in cool-temperate to tropical montane climates. Tripartite thalli involving fungus, green algae and cyanobacteria are common in this family.

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