The Hydnangiaceae are a family of fungi in the mushroom order Agaricales. Widespread in temperate and tropical regions throughout the world, the family contains about 30 species in four genera. Species in the Hydnangiaceae form ectomycorrhizal relationships with various species of trees in both coniferous and deciduous forests.
They may have fruit bodies with stipes and caps (pileate-stipiate), or gasteroid (with internal spore production, like puffballs). When pileate, the cap is smooth to scaly, sometimes striate, typically orange-brown or violet in color. The gills are widely spaced, thick, and waxy. In gasteroid forms, fruit body shape is irregular, with thin walls. Also, the peridium (the outer layer of the spore-bearing organ) is sometimes short-lasting (evanescent). Columella (the central, sterile part of the sporangium) may be absent or present, the hymenia are not gelatinized, and are formed in locules. Basidia are club-shaped (clavate), with two or four sterigmata, sometimes with accompanying cheilocystidia (cystidia on the edges of gills).
Distribution and habitat
Hydnangiaceae taxa have a widespread distribution in both temperate and tropical zones.
Hydnangiaceae species are ectomycorrhizal, forming symbiotic relationships with various plant species, and have an important role in forest ecosystems.
^ Matheny PB, Curtis JM, Hofstetter V, et al. (2006). "Major clades of Agaricales: a multilocus phylogenetic overview". Mycologia. 98 (6): 982–995. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.982. PMID 17486974.
^ Cannon PF, Kirk PM (2007). Fungal Families of the World. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-85199-827-5.
^ Mueller GM. (1997). "Distribution and species composition of Laccaria (Agaricales) in tropical and subtropical America". Revista de Biología Tropical. 44: 131–135.
^ Mueller GM. "Systematics of Laccaria (Agaricales) in the Continental United States and Canada, with discussions on extralimital taxa and descriptions of extant types". Fieldiana: Botany. New Series. 30: 1–158.
^ Roy M, Dubois MP, Proffit M, Vincenot L, Desmarais E, Selosse MA (2008). "Evidence from population genetics that the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria amethystina is an actual multihost symbiont". Molecular Ecology. 17 (12): 2825–2838. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03790.x. PMID 18489549.
^ Dogde CW, Zeller SM (1936). "Hydnangium and related genera". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 23 (4): 565–598. doi:10.2307/2394151. JSTOR 2394151.
^ Singer R. (1959). "Type Studies on Basidiomycetes IX: Maccagnia carnica". Sydowia. 13: 235–238.
^ Beaton G, Pegler DN, Young TW (1984). "Gasteroid Basidiomycota of Victoria State, Australia. I. Hydnangiaceae". Kew Bulletin. 39 (3): 499–508. doi:10.2307/4108593. JSTOR 4108593.