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Shady Horsetail

Equisetum pratense Ehrh.

Brief Summary

    Equisetum pratense: Brief Summary
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    Equisetum pratense, commonly known as meadow horsetail, shade horsetail or shady horsetail, is a widespread horsetail (Equisetophyta) fern. Shade horsetail can be commonly found in forests with tall trees or very thick foliage that can provide shade and tends to grow closer and thicker around streams, ponds and rivers. The specific epithet pratense is Latin, meaning pasture or meadow dwelling.

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Comprehensive Description

    Equisetum pratense
    provided by wikipedia

    Equisetum pratense, commonly known as meadow horsetail, shade horsetail or shady horsetail, is a widespread horsetail (Equisetophyta) fern. Shade horsetail can be commonly found in forests with tall trees or very thick foliage that can provide shade and tends to grow closer and thicker around streams, ponds and rivers. The specific epithet pratense is Latin, meaning pasture or meadow dwelling.

    Description

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    Fertile shoot with growing branches

    Equisetum pratense has whitish-green and slender sterile stems that grow 15–52.5 cm (5.9–20.7 in) tall, with 8 to 20 ridges that bear three rows of flat spinules. The centrum is approximately one sixth of the diameter of the stem. The pale sheaths bear slender brown teeth with white margins.[1]

    Cones mature in late spring.[2]

    Habitat

    Equisetum pratense occurs in alluvial woods, thickets, mossy glades, and calcareous meadows.[1] It is a common pioneer species, commonly growing where instability or water erosion leaves an often open ground surface or where sandy alluvium accumulates beside streams. Where vegetation is more abundant, the fern occurs only as sparse and diminutive shoots, as the fern is succumbing to competition in a later seral community.

    The plant is widespread, occurring from Iceland and the United Kingdom through northern and central Europe as far south as the Alps. It grows across most of northern Asia to Japan and through northern parts of North America from Alaska to Labrador.[3]

    References

    1. ^ a b Merrit Lyndon Fernald (1970). R. C. Rollins, ed. Gray's Manual of Botany (Eighth (Centennial) - Illustrated ed.). D. Van Nostrand Company. p. 4. ISBN 0-442-22250-5..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "Equisetum pratense". eFloras. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
    3. ^ C. N. Page (1997). The Ferns of Britain and Ireland (illustrated, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 461. ISBN 9780521586580.
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Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Conn., Ill., Iowa, Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.Y., N.Dak., Vt., Wis.; n Eurasia to ne China, Japan in Hokkaido.
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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    eFloras
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    80400_distribution

Morphology

    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Aerial stems dimorphic; vegetative stems green, branched, 16--50 cm; hollow center 1/6--1/3 stem diam. Sheaths somewhat elongate, 3--5 × 2--4 mm; teeth 8--18, narrow, 1.5--4 mm, centers dark and margins white. Branches in regular whorls, horizontal to drooping, solid; ridges 3; valleys channeled; 1st internode of each branch equal to or longer than subtending stem sheath; sheath teeth deltate. Fertile stems brown, with stomates, initially unbranched, persisting and becoming branched and green after spore discharge.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    80399

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Cones maturing in late spring. Meadows, wet woodlands; 0--2000m.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    80400