Description

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Annual herbs. Leaves opposite, simple, strongly 3-nerved from the base; bases sometimes connate. Capitula numerous, sessile, aggregated in dense sessile glomerules or cymes, heterogamous; ray florets 1 to few, with inconspicuous, yellow ligule. Phyllaries 2-3-seriate, usually with smaller outer bracts. Achenes narrowly obovoid, somewhat flattened, black, 8-10-ribbed. Pappus 0.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Flaveria Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/genus.php?genus_id=1536
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Flaveria

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Flaveria is a genus of plants in the marigold family.[3][4] They are sometimes called yellowtops. Some are annual or perennial herbs and some are shrubs. They bear yellow flowers in heads, with zero, one, or two ray florets in each head.[5] These plants are found in the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Australia.[5][6]

While some members of this genus use the more common C3 carbon fixation pathway, others are C4 plants, and some are intermediate. With closely related species exhibiting different forms of metabolism, Flaveria has been a model genus for studies on the evolution of photosynthesis.[7][8][9] A monograph by A.M. Powell from 1978[10] is the most comprehensive study of morphology and biogeography for the Flaveria species to date. Molecular phylogenetic studies have clarified many of the evolutionary relationships between Flaveria species.[7][9]

Species[1][11][12]

References

  1. ^ a b c Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
  2. ^ Tropicos search for Flaveria
  3. ^ Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de. 1789. Genera Plantarum 186–187 in Latin
  4. ^ Tropicos, Flaveria Juss.
  5. ^ a b Floira of North America Vol. 21 Page 247 Flaveria Jussieu
  6. ^ Flora of China Vol. 20-21 Page 855 黄顶菊属 huang ding ju shu Flaveria Jussieu, Gen. Pl. 186. 1789.
  7. ^ a b McKown, A.D.; Moncalvo, J.-M.; Dengler, N.G. (2005). "Phylogeny of Flaveria (Asteraceae) and inference of C4 photosynthesis evolution". American Journal of Botany. 92 (11): 1911–1928. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.11.1911. ISSN 0002-9122. PMID 21646108. open access
  8. ^ Mallmann, Julia; Heckmann, David; Bräutigam, Andrea; Lercher, Martin J; Weber, Andreas PM; Westhoff, Peter; Gowik, Udo (2014). "The role of photorespiration during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the genus Flaveria". eLife. 3. doi:10.7554/elife.02478. PMC 4103682. PMID 24935935. open access
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Lyu, M.-J.A.; Gowik, U.; Kelly, S.; et al. (2015). "RNA-Seq based phylogeny recapitulates previous phylogeny of the genus Flaveria (Asteraceae) with some modifications". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 15 (1): 116. doi:10.1186/s12862-015-0399-9. ISSN 1471-2148. PMC 4472175. PMID 26084484. open access
  10. ^ A.M. Powell. 1978. Systematics of Flaveria (Flaveriinae-Asteraceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 65: 590–636
  11. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
  12. ^ The Plant List search for Flaveria

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Flaveria: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Flaveria is a genus of plants in the marigold family. They are sometimes called yellowtops. Some are annual or perennial herbs and some are shrubs. They bear yellow flowers in heads, with zero, one, or two ray florets in each head. These plants are found in the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Australia.

While some members of this genus use the more common C3 carbon fixation pathway, others are C4 plants, and some are intermediate. With closely related species exhibiting different forms of metabolism, Flaveria has been a model genus for studies on the evolution of photosynthesis. A monograph by A.M. Powell from 1978 is the most comprehensive study of morphology and biogeography for the Flaveria species to date. Molecular phylogenetic studies have clarified many of the evolutionary relationships between Flaveria species.

Species Flaveria angustifolia - Mexico (Oaxaca, Puebla, Guerrero); C3–C4 intermediate Flaveria anomala - Mexico (San Luis Potosí, Nuevo León, Durango, Zacatecas) Flaveria australasica - speedyweed - Australia; C4 Flaveria bidentis - coastal plain yellowtops - South America, Galápagos, West Indies, United States (Florida Georgia Alabama); C4 Flaveria brownii - Brown's yellowtops - southern Texas; C4-like Flaveria campestris - alkali yellowtops - USA (Arizona New Mexico Texas Utah Colorado Kansas Missouri Indiana) Flaveria chlorifolia - clasping yellowtops - Mexico (Chihuahua), New Mexico Texas; C3–C4 intermediate Flaveria cronquistii - Mexico (Oaxaca, Puebla) Flaveria floridana - Florida yellowtops - Florida; C3–C4 intermediate Flaveria haumanii - Chile, Argentina Flaveria intermedia - Mexico (Durango) Flaveria kochiana - Mexico (Oaxaca); C4 Flaveria linearis - narrowleaf yellowtops - Cuba, Bahamas, Florida, Yucatán Peninsula Flaveria maritima Kunth Flaveria mcdougallii Theroux, Pinkava & D.J.Keil Flaveria oppositifolia - Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí), Texas Flaveria palmeri - Mexico (Coahuila); C4-like Flaveria pringlei - Mexico (Puebla, Oaxaca, Guerrero) Flaveria pubescens - Mexico (San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas); C3–C4 intermediate Flaveria ramosissima - Mexico (Puebla, Oaxaca); C3–C4 intermediate Flaveria robusta - Mexico (Colima) Flaveria sonorensis - Mexico (Chihuahua, Sonora); C3–C4 intermediate Flaveria trinervia - clustered yellowtops - Mexico, Belize, South America, West Indies, California Arizona New Mexico Texas Missouri Florida South Carolina Virginia Maryland Massachusetts); C4 Flaveria vaginata B.L.Rob. & Greenm.; C4-like
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