dcsimg

Brief Summary

    Ulmus americana 'L'Assomption': Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The American Elm cultivar Ulmus americana 'L'Assomption' was selected from seedlings grown from X-irradiated seed at the eponymous experimental station in Quebec before 1965.

    license
    cc-by-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Wikipedia authors and editors
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    wikipedia
    ID
    f13a5b7748d8ebb01ff08ed586afd1fd
    Ulmus americana: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Ulmus americana, generally known as the American elm or, less commonly, as the white elm or water elm, is a species native to eastern North America, naturally occurring from Nova Scotia west to Alberta and Montana, and south to Florida and central Texas. The American elm is an extremely hardy tree that can withstand winter temperatures as low as −42 °C (−44 °F). Trees in areas unaffected by Dutch elm disease can live for several hundred years. A prime example of the species was the Sauble Elm, which grew beside the banks of the Sauble River in Ontario, Canada, to a height of 43 m (140 ft), with a d.b.h of 196 cm (6.43 ft) before succumbing to Dutch elm disease; when it was felled in 1968, a tree-ring count established that it had germinated in 1701.

    For over 80 years, U. americana had been identified as a tetraploid, i.e. having double the usual number of chromosomes, making it unique within the genus. However, a study published in 2011 by the Agricultural Research Service of the USDA revealed that about 20% of wild American elms are diploid and may even constitute another species. Moreover, several triploid trees known only in cultivation, such as 'Jefferson', are possessed of a high degree of resistance to Dutch elm disease, which ravaged American elms in the 20th century. This suggests that the diploid parent trees, which have markedly smaller cells than the tetraploid, may too be highly resistant to the disease.

    license
    cc-by-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Wikipedia authors and editors
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    wikipedia
    ID
    e0d495335cf8931ced2b35ca4f3541c3
    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    The American Elm (Ulmus americana) is a native North American tree in the Ulmaceae family. Growing quickly when young, the American Elm has a broad or upright, vase-shaped silhouette, 80 to 100 feet high and 60 to 120 feet wide. Trunks on older trees can reach to seven feet across. Trees have an extensive but shallow root system. Propagation is by seed or cuttings; young plants transplant easily. The six inch long, deciduous, double serrated leaves are dark green throughout the year, fading to yellow before dropping in fall. In early spring, before the new leaves unfold, its rather inconspicuous small green flowers appear on pendulous stalks. These blooms are followed by green, wafer-like seedpods which mature soon after flowering is finished. The seeds are quite popular with both birds and wildlife. American Elms must be at least 15 years old before they will bear seed. The wood of American Elm is very hard and was a valuable timber tree used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Native Americans once made canoes out of American Elm trunks, and early settlers would steam the wood so it could be bent to make barrels and wheel hoops. Once a very popular and long-lived (300+ years) shade and street tree, American Elm suffered a dramatic decline with the introduction of Dutch elm disease, a fungus spread by a bark beetle. It is vital to the health of existing trees that a program of monitoring be in place to administer special care to these disease- and pest-sensitive trees.
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    EOL authors
    ID
    18705174
    Brief Summary
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Ulmaceae -- Elm family

    Calvin F. Bey

    American elm (Ulmus americana), also known as white elm, water elm, soft elm, or Florida elm, is most notable for its susceptibility to the wilt fungus, Ceratocystis ulmi. Commonly called Dutch elm disease, this wilt has had a tragic impact on American elms. Scores of dead elms in the forests, shelterbelts, and urban areas are testimony to the seriousness of the disease. Because of it, American elms now comprise a smaller percentage of the large diameter trees in mixed forest stands than formerly. Nevertheless, the previously developed silvical concepts remain basically sound.

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_brief_summary

Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    This is the most common elm in the eastern US. (Weeks et al, 2005) The tree is reported as widely escaped in Idaho, which is not part of the natural range. It is occasionally cultivated outside its native distribution, and it has escaped sporadically from cultivation. It is also reported as naturalized in Arizona. (FNA, 2006)

    USA: AL , AR , CT , DE , FL , GA , IL , IN , IA , KS , KY , LA , ME , MD , MA , MI , MN , MS , MO , MT , NE , NH , NJ , NY , NC , ND , OH , OK , PA , RI , SC , SD , TN , TX , VT , VA , WV , WI , WY , DC (NPIN, 2008)

    Canada: MB , NB , NS , ON , PE , QC , SK (NPIN, 2008)

    Native Distribution: N.S., s. Man & s.e. Sask. & Crook Co. WY, s. to FL & c. TX (NPIN, 2008)

    USDA Native Status: L48(N), CAN(N) (NPIN, 2008)

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    Beck, Nicholas
    author
    Beck, Nicholas
    partner site
    Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    ID
    indianadunes:nid:123:tid_chapter:28
    Distribution
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    The typical variety of American elm (var. americana) is found throughout
    eastern North America [5]. Its range extends from southern Newfoundland
    westward through southern Quebec and Ontario, northwest through Manitoba
    into eastern Saskatchewan, then south on the upper floodplains and
    protected slopes of the Dakotas. It is found in the canyons and
    floodplains of northern and eastern Kansas and in eastern Oklahoma and
    central Texas. American elm is common along the Gulf Coast and east
    into central Florida [9,7,29,43].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_GENERAL_DISTRIBUTION
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    85874_distribution
    Occurrence in North America
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    AL AR CT DE FL GA HI IL IN KS
    KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO NE
    NH NJ NY NC ND OH OK PA RI SC
    SD TN TX VT VA WV WI MB NB NF
    ON PQ SK
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_STATES
    Regional Distribution in the Western United States
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_BLM_PHYSIOGRAPHIC_REGIONS
    Distribution
    provided by Silvics of North America
    American elm is found throughout Eastern North America. Its range is from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, west to central Ontario, southern Manitoba, and southeastern Saskatchewan; south to extreme eastern Montana, northeastern Wyoming, western Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma into central Texas; east to central Florida; and north along the entire east coast.


    The native range of American elm.


    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Native_Range

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Ulmus americana is reported as widely escaped in Idaho, which is not part of the natural range of this taxon. It is occasionally cultivated outside its native distribution, and it has escaped sporadically from cultivation. It is also reported as naturalized in Arizona, but I have seen no specimens.

    Ulmus americana is the state tree for Massachusetts and for North Dakota.

    The American elm is susceptible to numerous diseases, including Dutch elm disease. Ulmus americana has been a street and shade tree of choice because of its fast growth and pleasant shape and size. The species still exists in substantial numbers both as shade trees and in nature.

    Numerous infraspecific taxa have been recognized in Ulmus americana (A. J. Rehder 1949; P. S. Green 1964).

    Native American tribes frequently used parts of Ulmus americana for a variety of medicinal purposes, including treatment of coughs and colds, sore eyes, dysentary, diarrhea, broken bones, gonorrhea, and pulmonary hemorrhage, as a gynecological aid, as a bath for appendicitis, and as a wash for gunwounds (D. E. Moerman 1986).

    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    85872
    Description
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: forest, fruit, perfect, tree

    American elm is a deciduous, fast-growing, long-lived tree which may
    reach 175 to 200 years old with some as old as 300 years [5,27,53]. In
    dense forest stands, American elm may reach 100 to 200 feet (30-36 m) in
    height and 48 to 60 inches (122-152 cm) in d.b.h. Heights of 80 feet
    (24 m) are common on medium sites but on very wet or very dry soils, the
    species is often 40 to 60 feet (12-18 m) tall at maturity [5,44,54]. In
    the forest American elm often develops a clear bole 50 to 60 feet (15-18
    m) in length. Open-grown trees fork 10 to 20 feet (3-6 m) from the
    ground with several erect limbs forming a wide, arching crown [29,56].
    The alternate, double-toothed leaves are 2 to 5 inches (5-10 cm) long
    and 1 to 3 inches (2.5-7.5 cm) wide. The dark gray bark is deeply
    furrowed (9,15). The perfect flowers are borne in dense clusters of
    three or four fascicles. The fruit is a samara consisting of a
    compressed nutlet surrounded by a membranous wing [7,29].

    The root system of American elm varies according to soil moisture and
    texture. In heavy, wet soils the root system is widespreading, with
    most of the roots within 3 to 4 feet (1.0 - 1.2 m) of the surface. On
    drier soils, American elm develops a deep taproot [29].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_GENERAL_BOTANICAL_CHARACTERISTICS
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Trees , 21-35 m; crowns spreading, commonly vase-shaped. Bark light brown to gray, deeply fissured or split into plates. Wood soft. Branches pendulous, old-growth branches smooth, not winged; twigs brown, pubescent to glabrous. Buds brown, apex acute, glabrous; scales reddish brown, pubescent. Leaves: petiole ca. 5 mm, glabrous to pubescent. Leaf blade oval to oblong-obovate, 7-14 × 3-7 cm, base oblique, margins doubly serrate, apex acute to acuminate; surfaces abaxially glabrous to slightly pubescent, tufts in axils of veins, adaxially glabrous to scabrous. Inflorescences fascicles, less than 2.5 cm, flowers and fruits drooping on elongate pedicels; pedicel 1-2 cm. Flowers: calyx shallowly lobed, slightly asymmetric, lobes 7-9, margins ciliate; stamens 7-9; anthers red; stigmas white-ciliate, deeply divided. Samaras yellow-cream when mature, sometimes tinged with reddish purple (s range of species), ovate, ca. 1 cm, narrowly winged, margins ciliate, cilia yellow to white, to 1 mm. Seeds thickened, not inflated. 2 n = 56.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    85871
    Morphology
    provided by Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    Overall This is an erect tree. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) The tree is tall with an umbrella-shaped crown. (Peattie, 1930) Large trees are easily recognized by tall, clear trunks, open, spreading crowns, and graceful, drooping limbs that form a vase shape. It often has a buttressed base. (Weeks et al, 2005) This tree can develop three distinct habits including the vase-shaped form in which the trunk divides into several erect limbs strongly arched above and terminating in numerous slender, pendulous branchlets. A more wide-spreading and less arching form occurs, as well as a narrow form with branchlets clothing the entire trunk. This is a large, handsome, graceful tree, often with enlarged buttresses at base. (NPIN, 2008)

    Flowers are green. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) Flowers are borne in axils on the old twigs. Calyx is bell-shaped and 4-9-lobed. Flowers hang on long drooping pedicels. (Peattie, 1930) Flowers bloom in clusters along the stem. (Hultman, 1978) They have no petals. (Weeks et al, 2005) Bloom color is red or green. (NPIN, 2008) Flowers are born on a shallowly lobed calyx. They are slightly asymmetric, with 7-9 lobes and ciliate margins. There are 7-9 stamens. Anthers are red and stigmas are white-ciliate and deeply divided. (FNA, 2006)

    Fruit is brown. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) The samara (winged fruit) is rounded, the wing continuous all around except at the apex. Fruit may be oval or ovate, and is ciliate with fine hairs on the margins. (Peattie, 1930) Single seeds are each surrounded by a papery wing. (Hultman, 1978) Fruit is round and flat with hairy margins. The tip is deeply notched. (Weeks et al, 2005) The fruit is a yellowish to cream samara with narrow wings and hairy edges. Seeds are thick but not inflated. (UW, 2009) Samaras are yellow-cream when mature, though sometimes tinged with reddish purple (particularly in the Southern range of species). They are arrowly winged, with ciliate margins. Cilia are yellow to white. (FNA, 2006)

    Leaves are green and coarse. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) Leaves are obovate-oblong and abruptly pointed. Leaves are oval, unequal-sided at the base, and sharply doubly serrate. They are rough above, dull green, and paler below. (Peattie, 1930) Elliptical with a coarsely double-toothed edge, and tapering to a point. (Hultman, 1978) Simple leaves that have a lop-sided base. Fall coloration is yellow. (Weeks et al, 2005) Dark-green leaves have variable fall color. (NPIN, 2008)

    Stems This tree has a single stem growth habit. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) Erect arching branches form an umbrella-shaped crown. Twigs and buds are smooth or sparingly pubescent. (Peattie, 1930) Alternate branching is typical. Buds are elongate with chestnut-brown, slightly hairy scales. Twigs zig-zag from node to node. Lateral leaf buds lie against the twig. (Weeks et al, 2005) usually forked into many spreading branches, drooping at ends, forming a very broad, rounded, flat-topped or vaselike crown, often wider than high. (UW, 2009) Old-growth branches are smooth and not winged. Twigs are brown and pubescent to glabrous. (FNA, 2006)

    Bark is flaky and gray. (Peattie, 1930) Bark is gray and tough. (Hultman, 1978) Bark is spongy until mature, and is tannish gray with thick, interlacing ridges. Inner bark is two-toned with light and dark layers. It is tan colored and spongy when young. (Weeks et al, 2005)

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    Beck, Nicholas
    author
    Beck, Nicholas
    partner site
    Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    ID
    indianadunes:nid:123:tid_chapter:19

Size

    Size
    provided by Indiana Dunes LifeDesk

    Tree height at 20 years is a maximum of 50' tall, at maturity 120.0' tall. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) Tree may be 50-100' tall. (Hultman, 1978) The tree was once 100'+ regularly, but is now more commonly 30-40'. (Weeks et al, 2005) It usually grows 60-80'. (NPIN, 2008)

    Flowers inflorescence is less than 1" hanging cluster. (UW, 2009) Fascicles are less than 2.5 cm and the pedicel is 1-2 cm. (FNA, 2006)

    Fruit is ovate and roughly 1 cm. Cilia to 1 mm. (FNA, 2006)

    Leaves 4-6" long. (Hultman, 1978) Petiole is roughly 5 mm. Leaves are 7-14 × 3-7 cm. (FNA, 2006)

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    Beck, Nicholas
    author
    Beck, Nicholas
    partner site
    Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    ID
    indianadunes:nid:123:tid_chapter:21

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Ulmus americana var. aspera Chapman; U. americana var. floridana (Chapman) Little; U. floridana Chapman
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    85870

Habitat

    Climate
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Within the natural range of American elm, the climate varies from warm and humid in the southeast to cold and dry in the northwest. Average temperatures are as follows: January, from -18° C (0° F) and below in Canada and 16° C (60° F) in central Florida; July, from 16° C (60° F) in Manitoba to 27° C (80° F) in the Southern States; annual maximum, 32° C (90° F) to 35° C (95° F) in the Northeast and 38° C (100° F) to 41° C (105° F) in the South and West; annual minimum, from -40° C (-40° F) to -18° C (0° F) in the North and -18° C (0° F) to -1° C (30° F) in the South.

    Average annual precipitation varies from a scarce 380 min (15 in) in the Northwest to a plentiful 1520 mm (60 in) on the gulf coast. Over the central part of the species range there are about 760 to 1270 min (30 to 50 in) per year. Throughout the range most of the precipitation comes during the warm (April-September) season. Average annual snowfall generally varies from none in Florida to about 200 cm (80 in) in the Northeast. A few areas, mainly around the Great Lakes, get 254 to 380 cm (100 to 150 in) of snow per year.

    The average frost-free period is about 80 to 160 days for the northern tier of States and Canada to about 200 to 320 days for the gulf coast and Southeastern States.

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Climate
    Habitat
    provided by Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    Habitat constitutes rich meadows and stream bottoms along morainal borders. Occasional in red maple swamps back of high dunes. (Peattie, 1930) Most common in bottomlands. (Hultman, 1978) Common in moist to wet, rich woods and flood-plains. (Weeks et al, 2005) Native habitat consists of stream banks and lowland areas. (NPIN, 2008) Habitat includes alluvial woods, swamp forests, deciduous woodlands, fence-rows, pastures, old fields, and waste areas. It is also planted as street trees. Elevation from 0-1400 m. (FNA, 2006)
    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    Beck, Nicholas
    author
    Beck, Nicholas
    partner site
    Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    ID
    indianadunes:nid:123:tid_chapter:30
    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Alluvial woods, swamp forests, deciduous woodlands, fencerows, pastures, old fields, waste areas; planted as street trees; 0-1400m.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    85874
    Habitat characteristics
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: cover, swamp

    American elm is common on wet flats and bottomlands but is not
    restricted to these sites. In the southern bottomland regions, it
    commonly occurs on terraces and flats but not in deep swamps. At higher
    elevations in the Appalachians it is often limited to the vicinity of
    larger streams and rarely occurs at elevations above 2,000 feet (610 m).
    In the Lake States and Central States, it is found on plains and moraine
    hills as well as the bottomlands and swamp margins. Along the
    northeastern edge of its range, it is usually restricted to valleys
    along waterways except where it has been planted on the uplands
    [29,42,50].

    American elm grows best on rich, well-drained loams. Growth is poor on
    dry sands and where the summer water table is constantly high. In
    Michigan, on loam and clay soils, growth is good when the summer water
    table drops 8 to 10 feet (2.4-3.0 m) below the surface. In the South,
    American elm is common on clay and silty-clay loams on bottomlands and
    terraces. Growth is medium on wetter sites and good on well-drained
    sites. In the arid western end of its range, American elm is restricted
    to silt or clay loams in river bottoms and terraces. American elm most
    commonly grows on soils of the orders Alfisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols,
    and Ultisols [5,29,41].

    In addition to those species mentioned in SAF Cover Types, common
    associates of American elm include balsam fir (Abies balsamea), silver
    maple (Acer saccharinum), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), pin oak
    (Quercus palustris), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica), white ash (Fraxinus
    americana), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), hackberry (Celtis
    occidentalis), boxelder (Acer negundo), birch (Betula spp.), and hickory
    (Carya spp.) [4,19,43,50].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_SITE_CHARACTERISTICS
    Habitat: Cover Types
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

    More info for the terms: hardwood, swamp

    16 Aspen
    24 Hemlock - yellow birch
    25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch
    26 Sugar maple - basswood
    28 Black cherry - maple
    39 Black ash - American elm - red maple
    42 Bur oak
    46 Eastern redcedar
    52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
    53 White oak
    55 Northern red oak
    60 Beech - sugar maple
    62 Silver maple - American elm
    63 Cottonwood
    85 Slash pine - hardwood
    91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak
    92 Sweetgum - willow oak
    93 Sugarberry - American elm - green ash
    94 Sycamore - sweetgum - American elm
    95 Black willow
    96 Overcup oak - water hickory
    101 Baldcypress
    102 Baldcypress - tupelo
    103 Water tupelo - swamp tupelo
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_SAF_COVER_TYPES
    Habitat: Ecosystem
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

    FRES10 White - red - jack pine
    FRES11 Spruce - fir
    FRES15 Oak - hickory
    FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress
    FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood
    FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_ECOSYSTEMS
    Habitat: Plant Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

    More info for the term: forest

    K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
    K095 Great Lakes pine forest
    K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest
    K100 Oak - hickory forest
    K101 Elm - ash forest
    K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
    K112 Southern mixed forest
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_KUCHLER_PLANT_ASSOCIATIONS
    Soils and Topography
    provided by Silvics of North America
    American elm is most common on flats and bottom lands throughout its range but is not restricted to these sites. On the southern bottom-land region, it is found widely in first bottoms and terraces, especially on first bottom flats, but not in deep swamps. At higher elevations in the Appalachians, it is often limited to the vicinity of large streams and rarely appears at elevations above 610 in (2,000 ft). In West Virginia, however, it does appear in high coves at elevations of 760 in (2,500 ft). In the Lake and Central States, it is found on plains and morainal hills as well as on bottom lands and swamp margins. Along the northwestern edge of the range, it is usually restricted to valley bottoms along watercourses.

    Although American elm is common on bottom-land soils, it is found on many of the great soil groups within its range. The soils include well-drained sands, organic bogs, undifferentiated silts, poorly drained clays, prairie loams, and many intermediate combinations.

    American elm grows best on rich, well-drained loams. Soil moisture greatly influences its growth. Growth is poor in droughty sands and in soils where the summer water table is high. In Michigan, on loam and clay soils, growth is good when the summer water table drops 2.4 to 3.0 in (8 to 10 ft) below the surface, medium with summer water table at 1.2 to 2.4 in (4 to 8 ft), and poor when topsoil is wet throughout the year. On sandy soils underlain with clay, growth is medium to good where the summer water table is 0.6 m (2 ft) or more below the soil surface. Organic soils are usually poor sites, but those with a summer water table at least 0.6 m (2 ft) below the surface are classed as medium sites for American elm.

    In the South, American elm is common on clay and silty-clay loams on first bottoms and terraces; growth is medium on wetter sites and good on well-drained flats in first bottoms (8). In the and western end of the range, it is usually confined to the silt or clay loams in river bottoms and terraces. In shelterbelt plantings on the uplands, however, survival is generally best on sandy soils where the moisture is more evenly distributed to greater depths than in fine-textured soils. American elm most commonly grows on soils of the orders Alfisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, and Ultisols.

    Soil acidity under stands of American elm varies from acid on some of the swamp margin sites in the Lake States to mildly alkaline on the prairie soils. A soil reaction considered suitable for this species ranges from pH 5.5 to 8.0.

    Leaf litter of American elm decomposes more rapidly than that of sugar maple (Acer saccharum), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), white oak (Quercus alba), and northern red oak (Q. rubra). Under Missouri conditions, the leaves crumble readily after 18 months on the ground. They have a relatively high content of potassium and also of calcium (1 to 2 percent). Because its litter decomposes rapidly and contains many desirable nutrients, American elm is considered a "soil-improving" species.

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Soils_and_Topography

Associations

    Associated Forest Cover
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Throughout its range, American elm seldom grows in pure stands and is usually found in mixture with other species. It is a major component of four forest cover types: Black Ash-American Elm-Red Maple (Society of American Foresters Type 39), Silver Maple-American Elm (Type 62), Sugarberry-American Elm-Green Ash (Type 93), and Sycamore-Sweetgum-American Elm (Type 94). It is a minor component in 20 other forest types.

    Black Ash-American Elm-Red Maple (Type 39) appears throughout the Northern Forest and into the Boreal Forest in Canada, and throughout the Lake States and into the northern edge of the Central Forest. In this type the most common associates, other than the type species, are as follows: In the Lake States and Canada, balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis); in Ohio and Indiana, silver maple (Acer saccharinum), swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), pin oak (Quercus palustris), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica), and eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides); in New England and eastern Canada, sweet birch (Betula lenta), paper birch (B. papyrifera), gray birch (B. populifolia), silver maple, and black spruce (Picea mariana); and in New York, white ash (Fraxinus americana), slippery and rock elms (Ulmus rubra and U. thomasii), yellow birch, black tupelo, sycamore, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), swamp white oak, and silver maple.

    Silver Maple-American Elm (Type 62) is common throughout the Central Forest and extends into Canada. Major associates in this type are sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), pin oak, swamp white oak, eastern cottonwood, sycamore, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and other moist site hardwoods.

    Sugarberry-American Elm-Green Ash (Type 93) is found throughout the Southern Forest within the flood plains of the major rivers. Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) replaces sugarberry (C. laevigata) in the northern part of the range. Major associates are water hickory (Carya aquatica), Nuttall (Quercus nuttallii), willow (Q. phellos), water (Q. nigra), and overcup (Q. lyrata) oak, sweetgum, and boxelder (Acer negundo).

    Sycamore-Sweetgurn-American Elm (Type 94) appears as scattered stands throughout the Southern Forest region and lower Ohio River Valley. Common associates include green ash, sugarberry, hackberry, boxelder, silver maple, cottonwood, black willow (Salix nigra), water oak, and pecan (Carya illinoensis).

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Associated_Forest_Cover
    Associations
    provided by Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    Recently it has been decimated by Dutch Elm Disease. (Hultman, 1978) This introduced pathogen, Ophiostoma ulmi hit city trees particularly fiercely. Dutch Elm Disease is spread by a beetle typically and is a fungus. Snags with peeling bark from the disease may produce valuable wildlife cover. Gray and fox squirrels feed heavily on flower buds. Fallen mature seeds are used by small rodents and wood ducks. Foliage is taken by white-tailed deer and woodchucks. Cover is used by nesting shrubland birds. (Weeks et al, 2005) Population was ravaged by the Dutch Elm disease, caused by a fungus introduced accidentally about 1930 and spread by European and native elm bark beetles. (NPIN, 2008)

    Wildlife uses include seed eating by granivorous birds, bird cover, bird nesting sites, and substrate for insectivorous birds. Seeds feed small mammals. It is a larval host for Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa), Columbia silkmoth (Hyalophora columbia), Question Mark (Polygonia interrogationis), Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui), and Eastern Comma (Polygonia comma). (NPIN, 2008)

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    Beck, Nicholas
    author
    Beck, Nicholas
    partner site
    Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    ID
    indianadunes:nid:123:tid_chapter:24

Diseases and Parasites

    Damaging Agents
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Since 1930, when Dutch elm disease reached the United States in a shipment of elm logs from Europe, it has spread to 41 States from coast to coast. The causal fungus, Ceratocystis ulmi, is introduced into the sap stream of twigs or small branches during feeding by the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus, and the native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes. Dutch elm disease is characterized by a gradual wilting and yellowing of the foliage, usually followed by death of the branches and eventually the whole tree (5,14).

    In addition to Dutch elm disease, several other diseases also are responsible for losses in shade and forest elms. Phloem necrosis, caused by a virus (Morsus ulmi) is detected by flagging or browned leaves and butterscotch-colored phloem with a wintergreen odor. It is transmitted by the whitebanded elm leafhopper (Scaphoideus luteolus) and through root grafts. Trees usually die within a year after symptoms appear. Verticillium wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum) is soil borne and usually enters host plants through the roots. Trees show dieback symptoms similar to Dutch elm disease (10). Other diseases include diebacks caused by Cephalosporium spp. and Dothiorella ulmi; a leaf black spot (Gnomonia ulmea); twig blight (Cytosporina ludibunda); cankers (Nectria spp., Sphaeropsis ulmicola, and Phytophthora inflata); elm wetwood (Erwinia nimipressuralis); and elm mosaic virus (3,4). Some of the common wood rot fungi are Pleurotus ulmarius, P. ostreatus, Armillaria mellea, Ganoderma applanatum, Phellinus igniarius, and numerous species of Polyporus.

    American elm is attacked by hundreds of insect species including defoliators, bark beetles, borers, leaf rollers, leaf miners, twig girdlers, and sucking insects. The carpenterworm (Prionoxystus robinae) bores into the sapwood and degrades the wood. Among the insects that defoliate elm are the spring cankerworm (Paleacrita vernata), the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria), the elm leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta luteola), the whitemarked tussock moth (Orgyia leucostigma), the elm spanworm (Ennomos subsignaria), and many other leaf-eating insects that attack elm and other hardwoods. The elm cockscombgall aphid (Colopha ulmicola) forms galls on the leaves but does little damage to the tree. Several scale insects attack elm and may cause damage. Both the elm scurfy scale (Chionaspis americana) and the European elm scale (Gossyparia spuria) are widely distributed. Among the leafhoppers, the whitebanded elm leafhopper is classed as a serious pest since it is the vector for phloem necrosis (15).

    Besides insect and disease losses, animal damage, and fire, climatic factors also can have an impact on survival and growth of American elm. Young forest trees may sunscald when exposed by harvesting or thinning operations. Open-grown American elm forks and develops a widespread crown that is susceptible to injury by heavy, wet snows and glaze storms. Of 37 tree species examined after an ice storm in Illinois, American elm ranked fourth in susceptibility to ice damage. In dense stands, such injuries are less severe and are not generally a management problem. Although American elm is shallow rooted in wet soils, it is fairly windfirm because the roots are widespread.

    The species is reasonably drought resistant, but prolonged drought reduces growth and may cause death. During the drought of 1934, in the Midwest prairie region, losses of American elm and associated species ran as high as 80 to 90 percent. The 1951-54 drought also caused severe losses in the bottom lands of the South where American elm was more susceptible to drought than the lowland red oaks. Prolonged spring floods may cause death or growth loss. Despite suitable temperatures, in Minnesota bottom lands root elongation does not begin until the spring floods recede and soil aeration increases. On these sites and where trees are planted between street and sidewalk, buttress roots often are a result of inadequate soil aeration.

    Fire damage is not a major management problem in the North; however, in southern bottom lands, fall and sometimes early spring fires are extremely damaging. Fires can kill seedling- and sapling-size trees and wound larger trees, thus admitting heartrot fungi.

    Animal damage to American elm, from the sapling stage to maturity, is not a serious problem except for sapsucker injury that degrades the wood.

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Damaging_Agents

General Ecology

    Fire Ecology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: fire regime, seed

    Fire rarely occurs in the moist areas where American elm typically
    grows. When fire does occur and conditions are dry, American elm
    greatly decreases following fire [12]. Wind- and water-dispersed seed
    are important in the survival of American elm following fire [28].
    After being top-killed, young American elm will sprout from the base
    following fire [5].

    FIRE REGIMES :
    Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
    species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
    "Find FIRE REGIMES".
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_FIRE_ECOLOGY_OR_ADAPTATIONS
    Fire Management Considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: top-kill

    Fire is usually not a major management consideration for American elm in
    the North, but in the southern bottomlands, fall and early spring fires
    are extremely damaging. Most fires will top-kill seedlings and saplings
    and wound larger trees, providing an entry point for heart-rot fungi
    [20,40].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_FIRE_MANAGEMENT_CONSIDERATIONS
    Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_RAUNKIAER_LIFE_FORM
    Immediate Effect of Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: severity, top-kill

    American elm is easily damaged by fire [11]. Low- and moderate-severity
    fires top-kill trees up to sapling size and will wound larger trees
    [29]. In a study of the fire effects on 2- to 8-year old American elm
    trees in the Missouri prairie, two spring fires of unreported severity
    in March and April caused dieback of 40 and 90 percent, respectively
    [33].

    American elm suffered complete tissue death when the cambium was exposed
    to a temperature of 140 degrees Fahrenheit (60 deg C) for 20 minutes
    [31].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_IMMEDIATE_FIRE_EFFECT_ON_PLANT
    Life Form
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: tree

    Tree
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_LIFE_FORM
    Plant Response to Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Young American elm will sprout from the base following fire [1,25].

    The Research Paper by Bowles and others 2007 provides information on
    postfire responses of several plant species, including American elm,
    that was not available when this species review was originally written.
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_PLANT_RESPONSE_TO_FIRE
    Post-fire Regeneration
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: secondary colonizer, seed

    Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/root sucker
    Secondary colonizer - on-site seed
    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_POSTFIRE_REGENERATION_STRATEGY
    Reaction to Competition
    provided by Silvics of North America
    American elm is classed as intermediate in shade tolerance among the eastern hardwoods. Usually it responds well to release, often growing more rapidly than its associates at advanced ages. Once it becomes dominant in a mixed hardwood stand, it is seldom overtaken by other species. It can persist in the understory of pioneer species such as eastern cottonwood, black willow, and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) but dies if suppressed by tolerant sugar maple or American beech (Fagus grandifolia).

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Reaction_to_Competition
    Regeneration Processes
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: epigeal, seed, stratification, tree

    Seed production and dissemination: American elm seed production may
    begin as early as age 15 but is seldom abundant before age 40. When
    mature, American elm is a prolific seed producer. Trees as old as 300
    years have been reported to bear seed [5]. In closed stands, seed
    production is greatest in the exposed tops of trees. The winged seeds
    are light and readily disseminated by the wind. Although most seeds
    fall within 300 feet (90 m) of the parent tree, some may be carried 0.25
    mile (0.4 km) or more. In riverbottom stands, the seeds may be carried
    by the water for miles. Cleaned, unwinged seeds average 70,900 per
    pound (156,000/kg) [28,46,53].

    Seedling development: Germination in American elm is epigeal. Seeds
    usually germinate soon after they fall, although some seeds remain
    dormant until the following spring. Germination is usually 6 to 12 days
    but may extend over a period of 60 days. Dormancy may be overcome by
    stratification in sand for 60 days at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 deg C).
    The seeds germinate best with night temperatures of 68 degrees
    Fahrenheit (20 deg C) and day temperatures of 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30
    deg C). The germination capacity averages about 65 percent
    [7,10,29,46].

    Vegetative reproduction: American elm will reproduce fairly vigorously
    by stump sprouts from small trees. Large trees 150 to 250 years old
    seldom sprout after cutting [29]. Observations in undisturbed
    bottomlands of Minnesota suggest that replacement of American elm may be
    by root suckering [5].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_REGENERATION_PROCESSES
    Rooting Habit
    provided by Silvics of North America
    The depth of rooting varies with soil texture and soil moisture. In heavy, wet soils the root system is widespread and within 0.9 to 1.2 m (3 to 4 ft) of the surface. On drier medium-textured soils, the roots usually penetrate 1.5 to 3.0 m (5 to 10 ft). In deep, relatively dry sands in the Dakotas, American elm may develop a taproot reaching 5.5 to 6.1 m (18 to 20 ft) down to the water table.

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Rooting_Habit
    Successional Status
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the terms: climax, hardwood

    Faculative Seral Species.

    American elm is classed as intermediate in tolerance among eastern
    hardwoods [50]. It usually responds well to release. Once it becomes
    dominant in a mixed hardwood stand, it is seldom overtaken by the other
    species. It can persist for years as an intermediate but will be
    replaced by tolerant hardwoods such as sugar maple (Acer saccharum) or
    beech (Fagus grandifolia) if suppressed. Although American elm is not
    listed as a key species in the climax types on moist sites, it is
    usually one of the associated species [29,32].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_SUCCESSIONAL_STATUS

Cyclicity

    Cyclicity
    provided by Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    Active growth period is Spring and Summer, and is rapid. The tree is deciduous. Blooming occurs in Early Spring. Fruit/seed period begins in Spring and ends in Spring. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) Flowering occurs in April and May. (Peattie, 1930) Flowering is March to May. Seeds are produced April to May. (Hultman, 1978) Fall coloration is yellow. Large flowers may appear in February further South. (Weeks et al, 2005) Bloom time is February, March, and April. (NPIN, 2008)
    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    Beck, Nicholas
    author
    Beck, Nicholas
    partner site
    Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    ID
    indianadunes:nid:123:tid_chapter:25
    Flowering/Fruiting
    provided by eFloras
    Flowering winter-early spring.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    85874_cyclicity
    Phenology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the terms: fruit, seed

    The time of flowering, seed ripening, and seed fall varies by about 100
    days between the Gulf Coast and Canada. The flower buds swell early in
    February in the South and as late as May in Canada. The trees are in
    flower 2 to 3 weeks before the leaves unfold. The fruit ripens as the
    leaves unfold or soon afterward. The seed is dispersed as it ripens and
    seed fall is usually complete by the middle of March in the South and by
    the middle of June in the North [3,7,29].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_SEASONAL_DEVELOPMENT

Life Expectancy

    Life Expectancy
    provided by Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    Lifespan is moderate. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) Formerly it was long-lived. Trees to 400 years old have been documented. It now rarely survives to maturity at 150 years of age because of Dutch Elm Disease. (Weeks et al, 2005)
    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    Beck, Nicholas
    author
    Beck, Nicholas
    partner site
    Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    ID
    indianadunes:nid:123:tid_chapter:32

Reproduction

    Flowering and Fruiting
    provided by Silvics of North America
    The process of flowering, seed ripening and seed fall in American elm takes place in the spring throughout the range. The glabrous flower buds swell early in February in the South and as late as May in Canada. The flowers appear 2 to 3 weeks before leaf flush. Soon after wind pollination occurs, the fruit ripens, and seed fall is usually complete by mid-March in the South and mid-June in the North.

    American elm flowers are typically perfect and occur on long, slender, drooping pedicels, about 2.5 cm (1 in) long, in 3- or 4-flowered short-stalked fascicles. The anthers are bright red, the ovary and styles are light green, and the calyx is green tinged with red above the middle. With controlled pollinations, floral receptivity is greatest when stigma lobes are reflexed above the anthers. The trees are essentially self-sterile. A test in Canada showed only 1.5 percent viable seed from self-pollinated flowers. Pollination may be hampered in a wet spring since the flower anthers will not open in a saturated atmosphere (9).

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Flowering_and_Fruiting
    Seed Production and Dissemination
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Seed production in American elm may begin as early as age 15 but is seldom abundant before age 40. When mature, American elm is a prolific seed producers Trees as old as 300 years have been reported to bear seeds. In closed stands, seed production is greatest in the exposed tops of dominant trees. The winged seeds are light and readily disseminated by the wind. Although most seeds fall within 91 in (300 ft) of the parent tree, some may be carried 0.4 kin (0.25 mi) or more. In river-bottom stands, the seeds may be waterborne for miles. Cleaned but not dewinged seeds average 156,000/kg (70,900/lb).

    Adverse weather may reduce the seed crop. Spring frosts can injure and kill both flowers and fruit. Observations in Minnesota showed that while nearly ripe seeds were not injured by night temperatures of -3° C (27° F) for several successive nights, most were killed a week later when the temperature dropped to -7° C (19° F) and remained below freezing for 60 hours.

    Mammals and birds also may reduce the seed crop. The flower buds, flowers, and fruit are eaten by gray squirrels. The seeds are also eaten by mice, squirrels, opossum, ruffed grouse, Northern bobwhite, and Hungarian partridge.

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Seed_Production_and_Dissemination
    Seedling Development
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Germination in American elm seed is epigeal. It usually germinates soon after it falls, although some seeds may remain dormant until the following spring. While germination may extend over a period of 60 days, most of the seeds germinate in 6 to 12 days. Germination is best with night temperatures at 20° C (68° F) and day temperatures of 30° C (86° F). However, germination is almost as good when daily temperatures range between 10° C (50° F) and 21° C (70° F). Seeds can germinate in darkness, but germination increases in light. Seeds also can lie on flooded ground for as long as 1 month with little adverse effect on germination, except possibly where siltation occurs in flooded bottoms.

    American elm seedlings can become established on moist litter, moss, and decayed logs and stumps, but do best on mineral soil. Although they do grow in full sunlight, seedlings perform best with about one-third of full sunlight during the first year. After the first year or two, they grow best in full sunlight. Seedlings that develop in saturated soils are stunted and characterized by early yellowing and loss of the cotyledons, extremely short internodes, and small leaves.

    American elm can withstand flooding in the dormant season but dies if the flooding is prolonged into the growing season. Compared with other bottomland species, American elm is intermediately tolerant to complete inundation. Some may be killed by early fall frosts, but those that survive soon are hardened by temperatures alternating between 0° C (32° F) and 10° C (50° F). A constant temperature of 0° C (32° F) for 5 days also hardens the seedlings enough to avoid frost killing (7).

    Studies in Iowa and southeastern Michigan on wet lowland and upland mesic sites show that despite high mortality from Dutch elm disease, the next generation will be much like the last. Although American elm has been essentially eliminated from the overstory, it is a significant part of the understory and seedling layers. Some observations suggest that there will be a shift toward more intolerant species under the dead elms. American elm may be perpetuated for generations, even though the average life span of the trees is likely to be reduced. Where seeds are available, American elm is a prominent early invader of abandoned fields. On upland sites in the Midwest, fire, as a natural component of the environment, has kept American elm from invading the prairies (1,2,12,13).

    In determining vegetational patterns and succession, allelopathy is apparently not as important for species coming in under American elm as it is for species coming in under sycamore, hackberry, northern red oak, and white oak. In a test in Missouri, there was lower productivity and higher percent soil moisture under all test species but American elm. This apparently was due to toxic leaf leachate present from the four test species, but not present in leachate from American elm (11).

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Seedling_Development
    Vegetative Reproduction
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Small American elm trees produce vigorous stump sprouts. Although not documented, some observations suggest that replacement in dense, undisturbed bottom-land stands in Minnesota may be by root suckers of mature trees.

    American elm can be propagated by softwood cuttings taken in June and treated with indolebutyric acid or by leaf bud cuttings. In a test, greenhouse-grown stock rooted easier than field-grown stock. Propagation by dormant root cuttings has not been effective.

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Vegetative_Reproduction

Growth

    Growth and Yield
    provided by Silvics of North America
    American elm seldom grows in pure stands and there is no information on stand yields. On good sites in dense forest stands American elm may reach 30 to 38 m (98 to 125 ft) in height and 122 to 152 cm (48 to 60 in) in d.b.h., with a 15 m (49 ft) clear bole. On medium sites, heights of 24 m (80 ft) are common. On very wet soils or on the very dry soils of the Plains, however, the species is often only 12 to 18 m (40 to 60 ft) tall at maturity. In open-grown or sparse stands, the trees usually fork near the ground and form wide arching crowns. American elm is a long-lived species, often reaching 175 to 200 years, with some older than 300 years.

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Growth_and_Yield

Genetics

    Genetics
    provided by Silvics of North America
    The study of genetics in American elm has been primarily directed toward combining resistance to Dutch elm disease with desirable growth Characteristics. Only a few selections from American elm look promising at this time. Noteworthy is the "American Liberty" elm, a multiclonal variety selected from second-generation crosses of the most resistant parents. Despite high selection intensity, their resistance is still inferior to resistant cultivars derived from Asian or European sources.

    A few horticultural forms have been recognized. These are Ulmus americana columnaris, a form with a narrow columnar head, U. americana ascendens, with upright branches, and U. americana pendula, with long pendulous branches.

    Hybridization within the genus Ulmus has been aimed primarily at breeding for Dutch elm disease and phloem necrosis resistance. Because of the difficulty of hybridizing American elm, which has a chromosome number twice that of all the other elms (56 versus 28), most of the breeding and selection work does not include American elm. Thousands of attempts to cross the American with the Siberian elm have failed. Reports of successful artificial hybridization and verification of hybridizing American elm with other elms are rare.

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Genetics
    Genetics
    provided by Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    2 n = 56. (FNA, 2006)
    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    Beck, Nicholas
    author
    Beck, Nicholas
    partner site
    Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    ID
    indianadunes:nid:123:tid_chapter:15

Management

    Management considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: natural, tree

    American elm has suffered greatly since the introduction of Dutch elm
    disease from Europe around 1930. Since then the disease has spread over
    much of the United States [46,48]. The disease is caused by the fungus
    Ceratocystis ulmi. Spores of this fungus are carried by American
    (Hylurgopinus rufipes) and European bark beetles (Scolytus multistria)
    from diseased trees to healthy trees. The beetles breed only in dead,
    dying, or recently cut elm wood and winter as larvae under the bark. In
    the spring, adults emerge and fly a short distance (usually less than
    500 feet [150 m]) to feed in the twig crothes or small branches in the
    upper parts of the living trees. As the beetles feed, the spores are
    introduced into the tree and the tree becomes diseased. After the
    spores have been introduced into the tree's vascular system, the xylem
    becomes plugged and a toxin is produced. The trees wilt on the small
    branches and eventually on the whole limbs [16,39,47]. A program for
    controlling Dutch elm disease has been described [47].

    Most of the genetic research of elm has been concerned with the
    resistance of various species, varieties, races, and hybrids to Dutch
    elm disease or phloem necrosis. Natural hybridization in American elm
    is uncommon, although controlled crosses have been made with Siberian
    elm (Ulmus pumila). However, the success of these controlled crosses
    has been quite poor [2,29]. American elm is a tetraploid, having 28
    chromosomes, while most other elms have 14 chromosomes, making it
    difficult to cross with other elms [35].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_OTHER_MANAGEMENT_CONSIDERATIONS

Benefits

    Cover Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: cover

    American elm trees provide thermal cover and nesting sites for a variety
    of primary and secondary cavity nesters [26,30].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_COVER_VALUE
    Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: fruit

    Although American elm is not considered a preferred browse, deer,
    rabbits, and hares will occasionally browse the leaves and twigs
    [24,49]. The seeds are eaten by a number of small birds. The
    flowerbud, flower, and fruit are eaten by mice, squirrels, oppossum,
    ruffed grouse, northern bobwhite, and Hungarian partridge [5].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_IMPORTANCE_TO_LIVESTOCK_AND_WILDLIFE
    Other uses and values
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Before the advent of Dutch elm disease, American elm was prized as a
    street ornamental in many cities in North America [55]. The inner bark
    of American elm was used in various decoctions by the Native Americans
    in the southeastern United States [17].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_OTHER_USES_AND_VALUES
    Special Uses
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Before the advent of Dutch elm disease, American elm was prized for its use as a street tree. It was fast growing, hardy, tolerant to stress, and appreciated for its characteristic vaselike crown. Beautiful shaded streets in many cities attested to its popularity.

    The wood of American elm is moderately heavy, hard, and stiff. It has interlocked grain and is difficult to split, which is an advantage for its use as hockey sticks and where bending is needed. It is used principally for furniture, hardwood dimension, flooring, construction and mining timbers, and sheet metal work. Some elm wood goes into veneer for making boxes, crates, and baskets, and a small quantity is used for pulp and paper manufacture.

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    USDA, Forest Service
    author
    Calvin F. Bey
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Silvics of North America
    ID
    Ulmus_americana_silvics_Special_Uses
    Uses
    provided by Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    The tree can be harvested commercially for lumber products, naval store products, and pulpwood products. (USDA PLANTS, 2009) A valuable timber tree much planted for ornament though generally not the best to stand the fumes of some cities. Its branches meet across the road in a vaulted arch that permits the passage of high vehicles. (Peattie, 1930) It was used for years as an ornamental, and was once the most common shade tree in America. Recently it has been decimated by Dutch Elm Disease. (Hultman, 1978) Research is underway to produce disease-resistant cultivars for reintroduction in landscaping uses. (Weeks et al, 2005) This well-known, once abundant species, was familiar on lawns and city streets throughout America. The wood is used for containers, furniture, and paneling. Because of its fundamental architectural form, this is an ideal street tree. Because it is relatively odourless, the wood was used to make crates and barrels for cheeses, fruits and vegetables. (NPIN, 2008) Ulmus americana is the state tree for Massachusetts and for North Dakota. (FNA, 2006)

    Various preparations of bark were used by pregnant women to insure stability of children, for menstrual cramps, for colds, for severe coughs, for dysentery, for "summer disease-vomiting, diarrhea and cramps," to facilitate childbirth and for parturition, for broken bones, for appendicitis, for sore eyes as an eye lotion, for gonorrhea, and for pulmonary hemorrhage. An infusion of root bark was taken for excessive menstruation. Wood was used in various capacities as a structural and vessel building material. (UM, 2009)

    license
    cc-by-nc
    copyright
    Beck, Nicholas
    author
    Beck, Nicholas
    partner site
    Indiana Dunes LifeDesk
    ID
    indianadunes:nid:123:tid_chapter:38
    Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    American elm can be planted for erosion protection and as a windbreak
    [21,38]. Its shallow and widespreading roots make it fairly windfirm
    [8,56]. American elm can be propagated by cuttings, but the results
    have been variable. Doran [14] reports that cuttings taken in June were
    rooted with 94 percent success after treatment with indolebutyric acid
    but rooted poorly with no treatment. The propagation of root cuttings
    was ineffective for American elm in Ohio [6]. Leafbud cuttings are
    superior to soft-wood cuttings for propagating American elm [23].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_VALUE_FOR_REHABILITATION_OF_DISTURBED_SITES
    Wood Products Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: fuel

    The wood of American elm is coarse-grained, heavy, and strong. It lacks
    durability, warps, and splits badly in seasoning [44]. The wood is
    used in the manufacture of boxes, baskets, crates, barrels, furniture,
    agricultural implements, and caskets. Elm veneer is used for furniture
    and decorative panels [9,51]. American elm is also used for fuel wood
    [13].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_WOOD_PRODUCTS_VALUE

Taxonomy

    Common Names
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    American elm
    white elm
    water elm
    soft elm
    Florida elm
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_COMMON_NAMES
    Taxonomy
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    The currently accepted scientific name for American elm is Ulmus
    americana L. [36]. Recognized varieties include U. americana var.
    americana and U. americana var. floridana, which is restricted to the
    coastal plains from eastern North Carolina to central Florida [15,27].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    Fire Effects Information System Plants
    ID
    ULMAME_TAXONOMY