dcsimg

Comments

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P. A. Munz divided this species into five varieties, based on size of the plants, sepals, and leaflets and whether the leaves are 2-3×-ternately compound. The variation in size of these organs is not discontinuous or even bimodal, however, and I have not seen any material with 3×-ternately compound leaves. For this reason, no varieties are recognized here. The name Aquilegia canadensis var. hybrida Hooker has been misapplied to this species; the type specimen actually belongs to A . brevistyla (B. Boivin 1953).

Aquilegia canadensis has also been reported from New Brunswick, but the specimen has been destroyed and the species has never been recollected in the province.

Native Americans prepare infusions from various parts of plants of Aquilegia canadensis to treat heart trouble, kidney problems, headaches, bladder problems, and fever, and as a wash for poison ivy; pulverized seeds were used as love charms; and a compound was used to detect bewitchment (D. E. Moerman 1986).

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Stems 15-90 cm. Basal leaves 2×-ternately compound, 7-30 cm, much shorter than stems; leaflets green adaxially, 17-52 mm, not viscid; primary petiolules 17-93 mm (leaflets not crowded), glabrous or pilose, sometimes somewhat viscid. Flowers pendent; sepals divergent from floral axis, red or apex green, lance-ovate to oblong-ovate, 8-18 × 3-8 mm, apex broadly acute to acuminate; petals: spurs red, straight, ± parallel to divergent, 13-25 mm, stout (at least proximally), abruptly narrowed near middle, blades pale yellow or yellow-green, oblong to rounded, 5-9 × 4-8 mm; stamens 15-23 mm. Follicles 15-31 mm; beak 10-18 mm. 2 n = 14.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
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Distribution

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Man., Ont., Que., Sask.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering spring-summer (Mar-Jun).
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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eFloras.org
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Habitat

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Shaded or open woods, often around cliffs, rock outcrops, and forest edges; 0-1600m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
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Synonym

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Aquilegia australis Small; A. canadensis var. australis (Small) Munz; A. canadensis var. coccinea (Small) Munz; A. canadensis var. eminens (Greene) B. Boivin; A. canadensis var. latiuscula (Greene) Munz; A. coccinea Small
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copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 3 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
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Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Red columbine is found in rocky woods from Nova Scotia to the Northwest
Territories south to Florida and Texas [7,13,16].
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1992. Aquilegia canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Fire Management Considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: cover

No additional information is available on this topic.



MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
SPECIES: Aquilegia canadensis



IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
Usually scattered and found on rocky bluffs, wild columbine has little
importance as a forage species. However, it is pollinated by
hummingbirds, which may depend on wild columbine as an important source
of nectar [17].


PALATABILITY:
The palatability of wild columbine is rated as follows [5]:

domestic sheep: fair
cattle: poor
horses: unpalatable


NUTRITIONAL VALUE:
No additional information is available on this topic.


COVER VALUE:
No additional information is available on this topic.


VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
No additional information is available on this topic.


OTHER USES AND VALUES:
No additional information is available on this topic.


OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
No additional information is available on this topic.
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1992. Aquilegia canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Life Form

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the term: forb

Forb
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1992. Aquilegia canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Phenology

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: caudex, seed

Red columbine begins growth early in spring. Flowering occurs from
March to July, fruiting from June to August, seed release in early to
mid autumn [12]. Aboveground portions of the plant become senescent in
mid to late autumn, dying back to the caudex [1,7].
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1992. Aquilegia canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Taxonomy

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
The currently accepted scientific name for red columbine is Aquilegia
canadensis L. [13,14]

Recognized varieties are as follows:

A. canadensis variety canadensis
A. canadensis variety australis (Small) Munz
A. canadensis variety coccinea (Small) Munz
A. canadensis variety hybrida Hook.
A. canadensis variety latiscula (Greene)

Recognized forms are as follows:

A. canadensis forma Phippenii (J.Robinson) R. Hoffm.
A. canadensis forma flaviflora (Tenney) Britt.
A. canadensis forma albiflora House
license
cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
Sullivan, Janet. 1992. Aquilegia canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

Aquilegia canadensis

provided by wikipedia EN

Aquilegia canadensis (Canadian or Canada columbine, eastern red columbine, wild columbine) is an herbaceous perennial native to woodland and rocky slopes in eastern North America, prized for its red and yellow flowers. It readily hybridizes with other species in the genus Aquilegia.

Description

Height is 15–90 cm (6–35 in). Leaves are lobed and grouped in 3s, growing from the base and off the flowering stems. Flowers are 1-2 inches long and have yellow petals with a red spur and red sepals. They appear in late spring, nodding on stems above the leaves. The round end of the spur contains nectar, which is sought by butterflies and hummingbirds.

The caterpillars of Columbine Duskywing (Erynnis lucilius) feed on the leaves.

Cultivation

The plant is easily propagated from seed and blooms the second year. It is relatively long lived in the garden. It grows well in shade, and in sun with proper moisture.

The plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[2]

The cultivar 'Little Lanterns' is half the height of the species.

Uses

Native American tribes[which?] used various parts of red columbine in herbal remedies for ailments such as headache, sore throat, fever, rash caused by poison ivy, stomatitis, kidney and urinary problems, and heart problems.[3] Native American men also rubbed crushed seeds on their hands as a love charm.[4]

Toxicity

Canada columbine contains a cyanogenic glycoside, which releases poisonous hydrogen cyanide when the plant is damaged.[5]

Distribution

USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV), Canada (MB, NB, ON, QC, SK)

Wetland Indicator Status

Regions 1-5: Facultative Equally (FAC) likely to occur in wetlands or non-wetlands (estimated probability 34%-66%).

  • Region 6: Facultative Wetland (FACW) Usually occurs in wetlands (estimated probability 67%-99%), but occasionally found in non-wetlands.

Gallery

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    Flower and seedpod

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    In habitat

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    Leaves

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    The yellow cultivar 'Corbett'

  •  src=

    Illustration

References

  1. ^ Salisb. Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 374 1796
  2. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Aquilegia canadensis". Retrieved 7 July 2013..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ "Red Columbine" (PDF). PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  4. ^ "Aquilegia canadensis". NPIN: Native Plants Database. Lady Bird Johnson Wildlife Center. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  5. ^ Edible and Medicinal Plants of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Matthew Alfs. Old Theology Book House. 2001. p. 99.

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Aquilegia canadensis: Brief Summary

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Aquilegia canadensis (Canadian or Canada columbine, eastern red columbine, wild columbine) is an herbaceous perennial native to woodland and rocky slopes in eastern North America, prized for its red and yellow flowers. It readily hybridizes with other species in the genus Aquilegia.

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