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Budsage

Picrothamnus desertorum

Comments

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Budsage provides nutritious forage for wildlife and domestic sheep in winter; it can be poisonous or fatal to calves and lambs, if consumed in great quantity during spring months.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 19: 497, 499 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Description

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Stems diffusely branched from bases, some laterals ending in spinelike tips. Leaf blades or lobes orbiculate to linear, 1–5(–20) × 1–5(–20) mm. Phyllaries whitish green. Cypselae 1–1.5 mm. 2n = 18, 36.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 19: 497, 499 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Synonym

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Artemisia spinescens D. C. Eaton
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 19: 497, 499 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
editor
Flora of North America Editorial Committee
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

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No further information is available.
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

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No further information is available.
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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Common Names

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
budsage

bud sage

bud sagebrush
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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Description

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: achene, adventitious, shrub, xeric

This description of budsage includes characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology. It is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g. [30,36,56,68]).

Budsage is a native, summer-deciduous shrub [9]. It is small, round, and prickly with a height of 4 to 10 inches (10-25 cm) and a spread of 8 to 12 inches (20-30 cm) [30]. This low, spinescent, pungently aromatic shrub is profusely branched from the base [36,68]. After leaves and flowers fall from the plant, the flower stalks become woody, dry spines that may persist for several seasons [68]. Budsage's fruits are an oblong or ellipsoid hairy achene [56]. Dittberner and Olson [15] report budsage is endomycorrhizal.

Budsage is well adapted to xeric conditions. A layer of interxylary cork is formed annually over the last year's wood in both roots and stem. This layer of cork restricts upward movement of water to the very narrow zone of wood formed by the current year's growth and helps prevent water loss during the dormant season [36,68].

Roots: Budsage's root system is more branched and penetrates the soil more deeply than its associated shrub species. This allows budsage more efficient utilization of limited spring moisture [9,69]. However, the Institute for Land Rehabilitation [30] describes budsage's root system as shallow and fibrous. Budsage's extensive root system has a short, thick, vertical taproot up to 6 inches (15 cm) with many small horizontal side branches [68,69]. Budsage's root system grows primarily in the top 6 to 21.7 inches (15-55 cm) of soil [36]; but in gravel-free sandy soils, roots may extend up to 6 feet (1.8 m) [68].

Occasionally budsage produces adventitious roots. This occurs when the lowest branches are completely covered by soil. Budsage growing in bottomlands produce adventitious roots more often than those growing on benches [69].

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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Distribution

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Budsage occurs from southwestern Montana, central Idaho, and eastern Oregon south to southeastern California, New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado [32,59,69]. Plants database provides a distributional map of budsage.
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Fire Ecology

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More info for the terms: fire frequency, fire regime, frequency, fuel, severity, shrubs

Fire adaptations: Budsage is killed by fire [66].

FIRE REGIMES: Fires in deserts are historically more rare than in most western ecosystems. The more arid the desert, the less fuel produced and the less frequent and severe are any fires that may occur. However, even though fire frequency and severity may be relatively low, fire's effect on the ecosystem may be severe. The Great Basin Desert is a cold-desert area characterized by a variety of shrubs with a generally sparse understory. Plant communities are usually dominated by big sagebrush or shadscale. Budsage is similar to shadscale in general growth form, and like shadscale communities, budsage communities rarely burn [47].

The following table provides fire return intervals where budsage may be an important component of the vegetation. Find further fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find FIRE REGIMES".

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years) sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [41] basin big sagebrush A. tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [46] mountain big sagebrush A. tridentata var. vaseyana 15-40  [2,8,38] Wyoming big sagebrush A tridentata var. wyomingensis 10-70 (40**) [63,70] saltbush-greasewood Atriplex confertifolia-Sarcobatus vermiculatus desert grasslands Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica 5-100 grama-galleta steppe B. gracilis-Pleuraphis jamesii < 35 to < 100 western juniper Juniperus occidentalis 20-70 Rocky Mountain juniper J. scopulorum < 35 pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. 41] Mexican pinyon P. cembroides 20-70 [39,58] Colorado pinyon P. edulis 10-400+ [22,24,34,41] galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe Pleuraphis jamesii-Aristida purpurea < 35 to < 100 [41] **mean
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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info on this topic.

More info for the term: chamaephyte

RAUNKIAER [44] LIFE FORM:
Chamaephyte
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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Habitat characteristics

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Budsage generally grows in arid areas including foothills and ridges and has excellent drought tolerance requiring 8 to14 inches (200-350 mm) annual precipitation [30].

Elevation: Within the Great Basin budsage has an elevational range of 4,000 to 5,400 feet (1,219-1,646 m) [30]. Altitudinal ranges for individual states are:

Arizona: 5,500 to 6,000 feet (1,676-1,829 m) [33]
California: 2,953 to 5,249 feet (900-1,600 m) [28]
Colorado: 4,500 to 8,000 feet (1,372-2,438 m) [27]
Nevada: 2,300 to 6,800 feet (701-2,073 m)  [50]
Utah: 3,937 to 6,316 feet (1,200-1,925 m) [65]

Soils: Hutchings [29] states budsage ordinarily grows on slightly alkaline soil. The Institute for Land Rehabilitation [30] describes soils that budsage grows on as shallow, loamy, well-drained, and slightly alkaline. In a study of community types in the Great Salt Lake Desert of Utah, Vest [62] analyzed the soil in a shadscale/budsage community. His specific findings support the general statements of Hutchings [29] and The Institute for Land Rehabilitation [30]. The pH of the soil in a shadscale/budsage community in Utah was [62]:

Depth of Samples 2 inches 2 inches (taken under shadscale plant) 2 inches (taken under budsage plant) 1 foot 2 feet 8.7 9.4 9.1 9.7 10.0

Vest reported salt content, expressed as percent of the oven-dry weight of the samples as:

Depth of sample NaCl Na2SO4 Na2CO3 NaHCO3 Total 2 inches 0.009 0.026 0.006 0.088 0.152 1 foot 0.014 0.062 0.091 0.098 0.520 2 feet 0.016 0.044 0.053 0.121 0.408 3 feet 0.159 0.062 0.015 0.053 0.380

Soil texture in the same community was expressed as percent of oven-dry weight:

Depth Percent sand Percent silt Percent clays Type Very coarse Coarse Medium Fine Very Fine Clay Fine clay 2 inches (under shadscale) 1.0 1.6 2.6 9.0 18.8 46.0 2.4 24.8 clay loam 2 inches (under budsage) 1.0 1.6 2.2 8.8 15.2 47.2 4.8 14.8 loam 2 inches 0.7 2.0 2.5 5.0 22.4 39.6 2.4 24.8 clay loam 1 foot 4.0 5.6 8.0 13.2 11.2 24.0 7.2 25.2 clay loam 2 feet 5.2 6.6 10.6 16.4 10.9 19.6 3.6 24.0 sandy clay loam
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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

SAF COVER TYPES [19]:



220 Rocky Mountain juniper

238 Western juniper

239 Pinyon-juniper
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McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

ECOSYSTEMS [23]:



FRES29 Sagebrush

FRES30 Desert shrub

FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe

FRES35 Pinyon-juniper

FRES40 Desert grasslands
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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Habitat: Plant Associations

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: woodland

KUCHLER [35] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:



K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland

K024 Juniper steppe woodland

K038 Great Basin sagebrush

K040 Saltbush-greasewood

K041 Creosote bush

K053 Grama-galleta steppe

K055 Sagebrush steppe

K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe

K057 Galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe
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cc-publicdomain
bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

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More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: cover, shrub, woodland

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [52]:



107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass

211 Creosote bush scrub

314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass

315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue

316 Big sagebrush-rough fescue

320 Black sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass

321 Black sagebrush-Idaho fescue

324 Threetip sagebrush-Idaho fescue

401 Basin big sagebrush

402 Mountain big sagebrush

403 Wyoming big sagebrush

404 Threetip sagebrush

405 Black sagebrush

406 Low sagebrush

407 Stiff sagebrush

408 Other sagebrush types

412 Juniper-pinyon woodland

414 Salt desert shrub

501 Saltbush-greasewood

502 Grama-galleta

504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland

612 Sagebrush-grass
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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Immediate Effect of Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Budsage is killed by fire [66].
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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cover, presence, shrubs

Johnson [31] describes budsage as palatable, nutritious forage for upland game birds, small game, big game and domestic sheep in winter, particularly late winter. Budsage can be poisonous or fatal to calves when eaten in quantity [60]. Stubbendieck and others [56] report budsage as poisonous to cattle when consumed alone, but not poisonous to domestic sheep. However, Van Dyne [61] states budsage is known to cause sore mouths in lambs.

When budsage 1st shows signs of breaking winter dormancy, but before buds elongate, the bark can be easily removed from the previous season's growth by pulling. This condition is referred to as "slipping." At this time, budsage becomes palatable to domestic sheep. After the new twigs have elongated somewhat, budsage's palatability drops because the volatile oils increase. Cattle and horses seldom utilize budsage, possibly because of its aromatic oil content [68,69].

Smith and Beale [53] observed pronghorns in Utah from 1961 through 1970. They found during spring (16 March-15 June) budsage made up 18 to 35% of pronghorn diet. Budsage received highest utilization of any plant on western Utah deserts by pronghorns in the spring. The same study determined pronghorns ate no budsage during winter, budsage was <1% of the winter diet of cattle and 4% of the winter diet of domestic sheep. Gullion [26] lists budsage as "excellent" forage for Nevada pronghorn in spring.

Budsage is rated as "regularly, frequently, or moderately taken" by mule deer in Nevada in winter and is utilized by bighorn sheep in summer, but the importance of budsage in the diet of bighorns is not known [26].

Black-tailed jackrabbits and small rodents generally eat only leaves, small branches, and twigs of budsage. However, black-tailed jackrabbits may occasionally prune back an entire plant [68,69].

Chukars eat leaves and seeds of budsage in Nevada [26]. Sage thrashers appear to prefer territories with great amounts of black sagebrush (Artemisia nova), shadscale, and budsage in the Great Basin [37]. However, Wiens and others [67] did a statistical analysis of birds and shrubs in the Great Basin and found a significant (P<0.05) negative correlation between presence of budsage and sage thrashers and Brewer's sparrows. They found a significant (P<0.05) positive correlation between budsage and presence of mourning doves and loggerhead shrikes.

Palatability/nutritional value: Palatability of budsage is reported differently by different investigators. Chambers and Norton [9] report budsage is palatable to livestock the whole year. Cook and Harris [11] state budsage is "highly relished" by livestock in early spring, but later in spring, volatile oils increase and livestock avoid budsage. They also report budsage is not readily eaten during fall and winter because only a few dry leaves remain and only the spiny twigs and woody base are available to livestock.

In Utah Green and others [25] studied winter range of domestic sheep. They found domestic sheep frequently browsed 70% of budsage during the 1st contact. This represented all the domestic sheep could readily take, and only stumps of shoots and a limited amount of leafy material protected by coarse wood remained. Hutchings [29] describes budsage as a "good" forage species for domestic sheep that is browsed all winter long but is eaten most readily in late winter when growth begins. During this time budsage is of value to the welfare of browsing animals, especially where there is abundant dry grass to supplement their diet [30].

In a study of "major desert plants" during winter grazing season in Utah, Cook and Harris [11] determined average chemical constituents and average digestibility of budsage:

Average chemical constituents of budsage during winter grazing season

ether extract (%) total protein (%) ash (%) lignin (%) cellulose (%) other carbohydrates (%) gross energy (kcal/lb) phosphorus (%) carotene (mg/lb) 4.9 17.3 21.4 8.6 18.1 29.9 1923 0.33 10.8

Average digestibility of chemical constituents, digestible protein, and metabolizable energy of budsage during winter grazing season

ether extract (%) total protein (%) cellulose (%) other carbohydrates (%) gross energy (%) dry matter digestible protein (%) metabolizable energy (kcal/lb) 72.3 79.1 58.1 61.7 60.3 55.3 13.7 911

Cover value: Budsage is rated as poor cover for big game, upland game birds, and waterfowl. In Utah it is described as "fair" cover for nongame birds and small mammals [15].

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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Life Form

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More info for the term: shrub

Shrub
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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Management considerations

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
Budsage is highly susceptible to effects of browsing. It decreases under browsing
due to year-long palatability of its buds and is particularly susceptible to
browsing in the spring when it is physiologically most active [9]. Hutchings [29]
recommends 50% of annual growth be the maximum browsed. Heavy browsing may kill
budsage rapidly [69].
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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Occurrence in North America

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AZ CA CO ID MT
NV NM OR UT WY
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McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Other uses and values

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Budsage is an indicator of alkaline soils [56].
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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Plant Response to Fire

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
There is no information in the literature concerning budsage's response to fire other than West's [66] statement that fire kills budsage. Research in this area is needed.
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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Regeneration Processes

provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
More info for the terms: cohort, layering, monoecious, seed, shrub, shrubs

Breeding system: Budsage is monoecious [42].

Pollination: Budsage is wind pollinated [42].

Seed production: Good seed production occurs infrequently because budsage blooms so early in the spring developing embryos are frequently frozen [36].

Seed dispersal: Sagebrush seed in general has very poor dispersal. It lacks appendages for airborne transport by the wind or for attachment to animals. Most sagebrush seed falls beneath the parent plant and moves 3 feet (0.9 m) or less per generation [50]. There is no specific information about seed dispersal for budsage.

Seed banking: No information

Germination: Budsage has small seeds, 641,250/per ounce (2,250/gm) [4], and germination is low [30]. Flowerheads fall from the plant intact without breaking apart to release the seeds. Sometimes seed germinates while still in the head [36,68].

Seedling establishment/growth: Budsage was planted at the Black Butte mine in Wyoming as part of a wildlife improvement project and had 64% plant establishment the 1st year [51]. In an experiment at the Desert Experimental Range in southwestern Utah, West [66] compared survival of budsage plants in grazed and ungrazed plots. In 4 ungrazed plots, seedlings of budsage established in 1935 and 1936 were counted until 1968. The spring of 1936 was drier than average and had poor seed production; shrub seedlings were rare. West [66] speculates that difference in survival for the 2 cohorts may be a function of initial plant size, especially root structure, with the 1936 cohort being influenced by the dry spring. Percent survivorship was:

Year cohort counted 1935 1936 1937 1958 1968 1935 cohort 70 61 58 52 41 1936 cohort -- 9 3 2 1

Wood [68] states soil must be wet for 30 days or budsage seedlings will not survive.

Asexual regeneration: Everett and others [17] tested propagation of Nevada shrubs by stem cuttings and found budsage to be one of the "...most easily propagated." Budsage also can regenerate by layering [69].

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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [5]:



5 Columbia Plateau

6 Upper Basin and Range

7 Lower Basin and Range

8 Northern Rocky Mountains

9 Middle Rocky Mountains

10 Wyoming Basin

11 Southern Rocky Mountains

12 Colorado Plateau

13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
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McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Successional Status

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More info for the terms: climax, succession

Budsage is part of plant succession from colonizer to climax communities.

Early: Webb and others [64] characterize budsage as a pioneer species on disturbed sites in California's Death Valley National Monument.

Mid-successional: In the Great Salt Lake Desert of Utah, budsage is a mid-seral species on vegetated-dune communities [62].

Climax: Budsage is a component of climax vegetation on dense clay and clayey soil types in Montana [46].

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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Taxonomy

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The scientific name of budsage is Picrothamnus desertorum Nutt. (Asteraceae) [21,32,48].

Budsage is not known to hybridize with other species [30,69].

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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

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More info for the terms: reclamation, seed, shrub

There is no pretreatment required to germinate budsage seeds. They germinate at 68 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (20-30o C) [4].

Budsage is difficult to seed [45] but because of its shallow, fibrous root system, budsage can be used for soil stabilization and erosion control [30].

Two states list budsage as a plant suitable for reclamation or landscaping. Utah describes budsage as suitable for transplanting in mountain chaparral, pinyon/juniper (Pinus spp/Juniperus spp), Douglas-fir/white fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii/Abies concolor), quaking aspen/lodgepole pine (Populus tremuloides/Pinus contorta), ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa), and sagebrush [57]. The state of Nevada lists budsage as a "preferred" plant for highway plantings in salt-desert shrub communities [54].

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bibliographic citation
McWilliams, Jack. 2003. Picrothamnus desertorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/picdes/all.html