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Brief Summary

    Salix glauca: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Salix glauca is a species of flowering plant in the willow family known by the common names gray willow, gray-leaf willow, white willow, and glaucous willow. It is native to North America, where it occurs throughout much of Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the contiguous United States south through the Rocky Mountains to northern New Mexico. It can also be found in Greenland, northwestern Europe, and Siberia.

    This willow is usually a shrub growing up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) tall, but in appropriate habitat it becomes a tree up to 6 m (20 ft) tall. The smooth gray bark becomes furrowed with age. The species is dioecious, with male and female reproductive parts occurring on separate individuals. This species has secondary sexual dimorphism, with male and female individuals different in function or morphology in aspects other than their reproductive structures. For example, female plants are more sensitive to drought conditions. The seed stays on the plant until fall, when it is dispersed. The seed is coated in downy fibers that help it disperse on the wind and on water. Unlike the seeds of many other willows, these do not germinate immediately on contact with the substrate, but overwinter under the snow and sprout in the spring. This provides cold stratification to the seeds, and allows them a few weeks more to develop than in summer-dispersing willows.

    In the northern part of its range, this plant codominates with other species of willow on floodplains and in shrubby riparian and tundra habitat. It may also grow scattered throughout coniferous forests and woodlands, dominated often by spruces. In the southern part of its range, it grows in alpine and subalpine climates. Like many other willows, it colonizes freshly cleared habitat, such as floodplains recently scoured by water and forests recently burned.

    The taxonomy of S. glauca has been described as "confusing". With considerable geographic variation across its wide circumboreal-polar range, S. glauca may be considered "a very widespread and polymorphic species or species group", with currently no consensus whether it should be subdivided into races, subspecies or varieties. Formally and informally, there are a number of recognized subspecies (such as glauca, stipulifera, acutifolia, callicarpaea) and varieties (such as acutifolia, glauca, stipulata, villosa), but there are only small morphological differences to tell them apart. Furthermore, S. glauca is known to form hybrids with other willows, resulting in intermediates that are visually difficult to distinguish from one another. Some varieties and subspecies have very specific or limited distribution, though. The hybrid S. arctophila × S. glauca subsp. callicarpaea, for instance, is not found in Canada, and is common in eastern parts of Greenland, but absent from the west, whereas S. glauca subsp. glauca is not found on Greenland at all.

    As with other willows, S. glauca is an important food source for a variety of animals, particularly wintering ungulates, providing them with a rich source of calcium and phosphorus. It is considered moderately important as moose browse, and during the winter it constitutes much of the diet for snowshoe hares.

    Native Americans used parts of willows, including this species, for medicinal purposes, basket weaving, to make bows and arrows, and for building animal traps.

Comprehensive Description

    Salix glauca
    provided by wikipedia

    Salix glauca is a species of flowering plant in the willow family known by the common names gray willow, gray-leaf willow, white willow, and glaucous willow. It is native to North America, where it occurs throughout much of Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the contiguous United States south through the Rocky Mountains to northern New Mexico.[1] It can also be found in Greenland, northwestern Europe, and Siberia.[2]

    This willow is usually a shrub growing up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) tall, but in appropriate habitat it becomes a tree up to 6 m (20 ft) tall. The smooth gray bark becomes furrowed with age. The species is dioecious, with male and female reproductive parts occurring on separate individuals.[1] This species has secondary sexual dimorphism, with male and female individuals different in function or morphology in aspects other than their reproductive structures. For example, female plants are more sensitive to drought conditions.[3] The seed stays on the plant until fall, when it is dispersed. The seed is coated in downy fibers that help it disperse on the wind and on water. Unlike the seeds of many other willows, these do not germinate immediately on contact with the substrate, but overwinter under the snow and sprout in the spring. This provides cold stratification to the seeds, and allows them a few weeks more to develop than in summer-dispersing willows.[1]

    In the northern part of its range, this plant codominates with other species of willow on floodplains and in shrubby riparian and tundra habitat. It may also grow scattered throughout coniferous forests and woodlands, dominated often by spruces. In the southern part of its range, it grows in alpine and subalpine climates. Like many other willows, it colonizes freshly cleared habitat, such as floodplains recently scoured by water and forests recently burned.[1]

    The taxonomy of S. glauca has been described as "confusing".[4] With considerable geographic variation across its wide circumboreal-polar range, S. glauca may be considered "a very widespread and polymorphic species or species group", with currently no consensus whether it should be subdivided into races, subspecies or varieties. Formally and informally, there are a number of recognized subspecies (such as glauca, stipulifera, acutifolia, callicarpaea)[2] and varieties (such as acutifolia, glauca, stipulata, villosa),[5] but there are only small morphological differences to tell them apart.[2] Furthermore, S. glauca is known to form hybrids with other willows, resulting in intermediates that are visually difficult to distinguish from one another.[4] Some varieties and subspecies have very specific or limited distribution, though. The hybrid S. arctophila × S. glauca subsp. callicarpaea, for instance, is not found in Canada, and is common in eastern parts of Greenland, but absent from the west, whereas S. glauca subsp. glauca is not found on Greenland at all.[4]

    As with other willows, S. glauca is an important food source for a variety of animals, particularly wintering ungulates, providing them with a rich source of calcium and phosphorus. It is considered moderately important as moose browse, and during the winter it constitutes much of the diet for snowshoe hares.[1]

    Native Americans used parts of willows, including this species, for medicinal purposes, basket weaving, to make bows and arrows, and for building animal traps.[1]

    References

    1. ^ a b c d e f Uchytil, Ronald J. 1992. Salix glauca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.
    2. ^ a b c "580213 Salix glauca L.". Annotated Checklist of the Panarctic Flora Vascular plants. The Panarctic Flora (PAF) Project. Retrieved 28 February 2012..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    3. ^ Dudley, L.S. (2006), "Ecological correlates of secondary sexual dimorphism in Salix glauca (Salicaceae).", American Journal of Botany, 93 (12): 1775–83, doi:10.3732/ajb.93.12.1775, PMID 21642123, retrieved 2012-02-26
    4. ^ a b c S.G. Aiken; M.J. Dallwitz; L.L. Consaul; C.L. McJannet; R.L. Boles; G.W. Argus; J.M. Gillett; P.J. Scott; R. Elven; M.C. LeBlanc; L.J. Gillespie; A.K. Brysting; H. Solstad & J.G. Harris (2007). "Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago – Salix glauca L. subsp. callicarpaea (Trautv.) Böcher". NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data. Retrieved 2012-02-28. External link in |publisher= (help)
    5. ^ "Salix glauca L., Taxonomic Serial No.: 22482". ITIS Report. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 28 February 2012.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Grayleaf willow grows throughout most of Alaska except for the Aleutian
    Islands and along the southeastern coast [35]. It grows through much of
    northern Canada from Newfoundland northwest to the northern Yukon
    Territory, and south to southern British Columbia and Alberta. In the
    contiguous United States, it grows in alpine and subalpine habitats in
    Montana, Wyoming, eastern Idaho, Colorado, Utah, and northern New Mexico
    [10].
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Xinjiang (Altay Shan) [N Mongolia, Russia; Europe, North America]
    Occurrence in North America
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    AK CO ID MT NM UT WY AB BC LB
    MB NB NT ON PQ SK YT
    Regional Distribution in the Western United States
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    More info on this topic.

    This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    8 Northern Rocky Mountains
    9 Middle Rocky Mountains
    10 Wyoming Basin
    11 Southern Rocky Mountains

Morphology

    Description
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: capsule, fruit, shrub, tundra

    Grayleaf willow commonly grows as an erect shrub 3 to 4 feet (0.9-1.2 m)
    tall. On exposed tundra sites it grows as a low, semiprostrate shrub,
    and on favorable sites it sometimes grows up to 20 feet (6 m) in height
    and 5 inches (12 cm) in diameter [35]. The bark is gray and smooth but
    may become rough and furrowed on larger individuals. Male and female
    flowers occur on separate plants in 3/4- to 2-inch-long (2-5 cm) catkins
    that persist over the summer. The fruit is a 1/32- to 1/16-inch-long
    (0.8-1.6 mm) two-valved capsule [35].

    Two growth forms occur in the Rocky Mountains. In somewhat sheltered
    locations in subalpine environments, plants are upright and taller,
    while semiprostrate plants that are often difficult to distinguish from
    arctic willow (S. arctica) grow in more exposed, alpine situations [10].
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Shrubs to 1 m tall. Branchlets russet, glabrous or pilose. Stipules present; petiole present; leaf blade oblong-obovate, 3-5 × 1-2.5 cm, sparsely downy, abaxially grayish blue, base broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex shortly acuminate. Flowering coetaneous or serotinous. Catkins 2-4 cm; peduncle elongated in fruit; bracts long obovate, villous, apex obtuse. Male flower: stamens 2; filaments distinct, downy proximally. Female flower: ovary cylindric-ovoid, white tomentose, shortly stipitate; style deeply 2-lobed; stigma forked. Capsule 5-8 mm, gray tomentose; Fl. Jun-Jul. 2n = 76, 96, 114, 144, 152.

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Alpine places; 2500-3000 m.
    Habitat characteristics
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: shrubs, tundra

    In Alaska and northern Canada, grayleaf willow grows on both uplands and
    lowlands. In arctic tundra it often grows along river and streambanks,
    on sandy and gravelly floodplains, and on old benches [3,35]. In boreal
    environments, it grows as scattered shrubs in white and black spruce
    (Picea mariana) woodlands, in black spruce muskegs, and on river
    floodplains [3,35].

    In the Rocky Mountains grayleaf willow is restricted to open, alpine and
    subalpine habitats that commonly have rocky, well-drained soils [10,27].
    Habitat: Cover Types
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

    12 Black spruce
    107 White spruce
    201 White spruce
    204 Black spruce
    206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir
    251 White spruce - aspen
    253 Black spruce - white spruce
    Habitat: Ecosystem
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

    FRES11 Spruce - fir
    FRES23 Fir - spruce
    FRES44 Alpine
    Habitat: Plant Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

    More info for the term: forest

    K015 Western spruce - fir forest
    K052 Alpine meadows and barren
    Key Plant Community Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: forb, forest, shrub, tundra

    In Alaska and northwestern Canada, grayleaf willow dominates or
    codominates numerous seral willow (Salix spp.) and mixed-shrub
    floodplain communities. Riparian community associates include Alaska
    willow (S. alaxensis), littletree willow (S. arbusculoides), Richardson
    willow (S. lanata), diamondleaf willow (S. planifolia), and green alder
    (Alnus crispa) [34]. It also codominates in some mixed-shrub tundra
    communities with birches (Betula spp.), alders (Alnus spp.), and other
    willows [34]. In the Rocky Mountain States, grayleaf willow/tufted
    hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa) communities occupy well-drained, open
    alpine and upper subalpine habitats [20,27].

    Grayleaf willow occurs as scattered individuals in many boreal forests
    and woodlands. It is seldom an understory dominant, except in early
    seral stages. Douglas [11], however, described a 130- to 160-year-old
    white spruce (Picea glauca)/grayleaf willow community in southwestern
    Yukon Territory.

    Classifications listing grayleaf willow as a dominant in community types
    (cts) and habitat types (hts) are presented below:

    Area Classification Authority

    AK general veg. cts Viereck & Dyrness 1980
    sw YT montane veg. cts Douglas 1974
    CO: Gunnison & general veg. hts Komarkova 1986
    Uncompahgre NF
    UT, se ID riparian cts Padgett & others 1989
    Forest Service R-2 forest, shrub, grass Wasser & Hess 1982
    & forb hts

General Ecology

    Fire Ecology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: fire regime, root crown, top-kill

    Grayleaf willow is a fire-adapted species. Most plants sprout from the
    root crown following top-kill by fire. Viereck and Schandelmeier [36]
    reported that even old, decadent willows sprouted prolifically
    immediately after fire. The sprouting ability of willows is apparently
    more vigorous and prolific than that of birches or alders [36].

    Grayleaf willow's abundant, wind-dispersed seeds are important in
    colonizing burned areas. Seeds are dispersed in the fall, overwinter
    under snow, and germinate in the spring. Thus seedling establishment
    cannot begin until postfire year 2.

    FIRE REGIMES :
    Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
    species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
    "Find FIRE REGIMES".
    Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the term: phanerophyte

    Phanerophyte
    Immediate Effect of Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: top-kill

    Grayleaf willows that occur in white and black spruce forests can be
    killed by severe fires that completely remove soil organic layers and
    char the roots [39]. Less severe fires only top-kill plants.
    Life Form
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: shrub, tree

    Tree, Shrub
    Plant Response to Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: mesic

    Grayleaf willow is one of the most abundant willows following fire in
    white spruce forests of interior Alaska [14]. There are commonly
    several thousand stems per acre by 10 years after fire. However, its
    abundance is short-lived, and it is often absent by year 40 as dense
    white spruce sapling stands develop [14]. Grayleaf willow is also
    common on mesic black spruce sites after fire. One ll-year-old burn
    near the Tanana River had about 4,700 grayleaf, Alaska, and diamondleaf
    willow stems per acre (11,500/ha), and lesser amounts of spruce and
    poplar [38].
    Post-fire Regeneration
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: caudex, root crown, seed

    survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex
    off-site colonizer; seed carried by wind; postfire years 1 and 2
    off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2
    Regeneration Processes
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: forest, litter, root crown, seed, stratification

    Grayleaf willow's primary mode of reproduction is sexual. It produces
    an abundance of small, lightweight seeds. Like most willows, it
    probably begins seed production at an early age (between 2 and 10 years)
    [16]. Seeds are not shed as they ripen but remain on the plant
    throughout the summer and are dispersed in the fall. Each seed has a
    cottony down which aids in dispersal by wind and water. Unlike willow
    seeds dispersed in summer, grayleaf willow seeds overwinter under snow
    and germinate in the spring soon after snowmelt [9,41]. This cold
    stratification promotes good germination; seeds germinate over a wide
    range of temperatures (from 41 to 77 degrees F [5-25 C]) [9]. Spring
    germination is advantageous in arctic and alpine environments; the
    growing season of grayleaf willow seedlings is 3 to 6 weeks longer than
    that of summer-dispersing willows [9]. Exposed mineral soils are
    required for good germination and seedling establishment [16]. Forest
    litter generally inhibits germination and establishment.

    Vegetative Reproduction: Grayleaf willow sprouts from the root crown or
    stembase if aboveground stems are broken or destroyed by cutting or fire
    [16].
    Successional Status
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    Grayleaf willow is an early seral species. It pioneers freshly
    deposited river alluvium, glacial outwash, and disturbed areas with
    exposed mineral soil, such as road cuts and mine tailings [35]. It is
    also common in spruce woodlands following fire, especially in stands
    about 20 to 30 years old [14,23]. It has been found in 160-year-old
    open spruce woodlands [11], but it is usually displaced in densely
    forested stands because of its shade intolerance.

Cyclicity

    Phenology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    Grayleaf willow catkins appear with the leaves. In Alaska and the
    Yukon, flowering generally occurs in June, the fruits ripen in July and
    August, and the seeds are dispersed in late August and September [9,35].

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: natural

    Grayleaf willow is ranked as a critically endangered plant in Idaho and
    Washington under The Nature Conservancy's Natural Heritage ranking
    system [43].

Management

    Management considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Grayleaf willow is tolerant of heavy browsing [42].

Benefits

    Cover Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: cover

    In thickets grayleaf willow may provide cover for small animals, but its
    small stature limits its value as cover for large mammals.
    Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Grayleaf willow is a moderately important moose browse in some areas
    primarily because of its abundance [11,29]; in other areas it is poorly
    utilized [14,25]. Caribou use is probably moderate at best, and
    primarily in the summer [7]. In some areas, grayleaf willow makes up a
    large part of the winter diet of snowshoe hares [31].

    Willows are generally a preferred food and building material of beaver
    [1]. Willow shoots, catkins, leaves, and buds are eaten by numerous
    small mammals and birds [16].
    Nutritional Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Grayleaf willow is a relatively high-quality food for wintering
    ungulates. Winter stem crude protein content is about 6.4 percent.
    Grayleaf willow is also a good source of calcium and phosphorus, and its
    digestibility is relatively high [29,30].
    Other uses and values
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    All willows produce salacin, which is closely related chemically to
    aspirin. Native Americans used various preparations from willow to
    treat tooth ache, stomach ache, diarrhea, dysentery, and dandruff [26].
    Native Americans also used flexible willow stems for making baskets,
    bows, arrows, scoops, snares, and fish and muskrat traps [17,21].
    Palatability
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    In interior Alaska, grayleaf willow is less palatable to moose than
    Alaska willow, littletree willow, diamondleaf willow, or sandbar willow
    (S. interior). Moose browse grayleaf willow lightly in comparison with
    the others in areas where they grow together [25]. Grayleaf is more
    palatable to moose than aspen (Populus tremuloides), balsam poplar
    (Populus balsamifera), or paper birch (Betula papyrifera) [38].
    Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: stratification

    Densmore and Zasada [8] reported that under laboratory conditions
    grayleaf willow stem cuttings taken in the fall or spring rarely produce
    roots and, therefore, do not recommend planting grayleaf willow stem
    cuttings for rehabilitation purposes. However, grayleaf willow stem
    cuttings were successfully used to revegetate unstable sand dunes in
    northern Alberta [42].

    Seeding disturbed sites with this species may be a useful establishment
    measure. Grayleaf willow has been observed naturally invading barrow
    pits and mine tailings in arctic regions [19,35]. The seeds may be
    stored for up to 3 years, and require cold stratification before sowing
    [40,41].

Taxonomy

    Common Names
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    grayleaf willow
    gray willow
    gray-leaved willow
    glaucous willow
    white willow
    Synonyms
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Salix pseudolapponum Seemann
    Taxonomy
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    The currently accepted scientific name of grayleaf willow is Salix
    glauca L. [3,18]. Because it exhibits considerable geographic variation
    across its extensive range, it has been divided into numerous varieties
    or subspecies. Argus [3] recognizes three varieties:

    Salix glauca var. villosa (Hooker) Anderson
    Salix glauca var. acutifolia (Hooker) Schneider
    Salix glauca var. glauca

    Alternately, Hulten [18] recognizes four subspecies:

    Salix glauca subsp. acutifolia (Hook.) Hult.
    Salix glauca subsp. callicarpaea (Trautv.) Bocher
    Salix glauca subsp. desertorum (Richards.) Anderss.
    Salix glauca subsp. glabrescens (Anderss.) Hult.