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Japanese Flying Squid

Todarodes pacificus (Steenstrup 1880)

Diagnostic Description

provided by FAO species catalogs
Mantle slender, muscular.

Fins sagittate, relatively short, length about 40 to 45% of mantle length.

Funnel groove with foveola, no side pockets. Tentacular club expanded, robust, long; median manal sucker rings with sharp, triangular teeth alternating with flat, truncate platelets. Arms relatively short; arm sucker rings smooth proximally, toothed with about 10 to 14 graded, sharp teeth distally; right arm IV hectocotylized in distal third with suckers and stalks modified into low, conical papillae and comb-like protective membrane.

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FAO Species catalogue VOL. 3. Cephalopods of the world An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Species of Interest to FisheriesClyde F.E. Roper Michael J. Sweeney Cornelia E. Nauen 1984. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 3
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Distribution

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Western Pacific: 20° N to 60° N, excluding the Bering Sea. Northern and eastern Pacific; Japan north and east to Canada (disjunct?).
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FAO Species catalogue VOL. 3. Cephalopods of the world An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Species of Interest to FisheriesClyde F.E. Roper Michael J. Sweeney Cornelia E. Nauen 1984. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 3
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Size

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Maximum mantle length 50 cm in females, somewhat smaller in males; maximum weight at least 0.5 kg, common 0.1 to 0.3 kg. Females attain sexual maturity at 20 to 25 cm mantle length, males at 17 to 19 cm.
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bibliographic citation
FAO Species catalogue VOL. 3. Cephalopods of the world An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Species of Interest to FisheriesClyde F.E. Roper Michael J. Sweeney Cornelia E. Nauen 1984. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 3
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Brief Summary

provided by FAO species catalogs
An oceanic and neritic speciesoccurring within abroad temperature range from about 5° to 27° C,

usually in surface waters to 100 m depth and, to a minor extent, down to 500 m depth.During its lifespan of about 1 year a northward migration occurs first, followed by another one in southward direction, usually in close correlation with changes of the main surface currents. Large aggregations occur in small gyres and along oceanic fronts. Three independently breeding subpopulations can be distinguished in Japanese waters. The main group spawns in winter in the East China Sea, the second in autumn, west of Kyushu, and the third, minor group in spring/summer in the Sea of Japan as well as off northeastern Japan. Postspawning mortality is very high. The males of all 3 subpopulations mature before the females and transfer their spermatophores on the still immature females (in water temperatures of 13 to 18° C). With the progressing southward migration, females mature and spawn 300 to 4 000 small, elliptical or semi-spherical eggs (greatest diameter 0.7 to 0.8 mm) embedded in a gelatinous capsule (egg mass). Spawning occurs usually at water temperatures between 15 and 20°C, and, depending on the temperature, the larvae hatch after an incubation period of 102 to 113 hours.

Growth rates are directly related with temperature and inversely with size.Main food items are myctophids, anchovies (i.e., Engraulis japonicus ), crustaceans, gastropod larvae, and chaetognaths . Cannibalism is common.Predators include rays, dolphins (Coryphaena hippurus, balaen whales, and the northern fur seal ).

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bibliographic citation
FAO Species catalogue VOL. 3. Cephalopods of the world An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Species of Interest to FisheriesClyde F.E. Roper Michael J. Sweeney Cornelia E. Nauen 1984. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 3
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
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Benefits

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The catch reported in the FAO Yearbook of Fisheries Statistics for 1996 was 715 908 t, of which ca. 444 189 t were taken in Japan and 252 618 t in Korean Republic. Japan continued to take the lion's share although that of the Republic of Korea steadily increased from approximately 10 to 15% to more than 33% in 1981. Up to the forties, the Japanese Todarodes pacificus fishery was only a small-scale activity with unpowered boats of 1 to 2 t, taking less than 100 000 t per year. In the fifties, well equipped, engine- powered boats of 10 to 30 t were introduced. They deployed more jigging lines as well as battery-powered lamps for light attraction. In the sixties, these boats were in turn substituted by even larger vessels operating with jigging machines and generator-driven lamps, this evolution going hand in hand with the development of improved handling and processing techniques. Furthermore, a 'fishery forecast' has been established for all fishing grounds in the Japan Sea and the western Pacific. Parallel to the decline of catches of T. pacificus, other species such as Ommastrephes bartrami are becoming more heavily exploited. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 497 887 t. The countries with the largest catches were Korea, Republic of (249 280 t) and Japan (237 246 t) . Initially, T. pacificus was processed into a dried product (surume) for both domestic consumption and export, but with the expansion of the fishery, other production lines evolved, such as raw squid (sashimi), a cooked and processed product (sakiika), frozen, and canned squid.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
bibliographic citation
FAO Species catalogue VOL. 3. Cephalopods of the world An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Species of Interest to FisheriesClyde F.E. Roper Michael J. Sweeney Cornelia E. Nauen 1984. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 3
author
Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN
original
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Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup, 1880

This species comprises two subspecies, T. pacificus pacificus, which inhabits shelf and upper slope waters around Japan and south to Hong Kong and Taiwan, and T. pacificus pusillus, from shelf waters around northern Australia.

DIAGNOSIS.—Fin length <50% ML; largest tentacular sucker rings with 16–20 regularly spaced, equal, conical teeth slightly projecting above ring in all cases; diameters of largest suckers 1.9%–3.0% ML; manus with 6–12 quadriserial sucker rows.
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bibliographic citation
Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume II." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 277-599. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586.277

Comprehensive Description

provided by Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Todarodes pacificus pacificus Steenstrup, 1880

DIAGNOSIS.—Fin length 30%–45% ML; largest tentacular sucker rings with 18–20 regularly spaced, equal, conical teeth; manus with 11 or 12 quadriserial sucker rows.

ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION.—Steenstrup, 1880:79.

TYPE LOCALITY.—“e mari japonico” [Japanese Seas].

DEPOSITION OF TYPES.—Syntypes: Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, 2 females, 176 mm ML, 170 mm ML, remains of 2 other specimens (gladii, beaks, head with 2 arms and 1 tentacle, 2 arm tips, 5 club suckers, several radular teeth), collected from Hakodate, Japan, Andrea leg., 1869 (fide Kristensen and Knudsen, 1983).

DISTRIBUTION AND LIFE HISTORY.—More is known about this subspecies than about any other ommastrephid due to its economic importance. Todarodes pacificus pacificus forms the basis of the largest, single-species squid fishery in the world, although the catch has recently been declining. Okutani (1983) provided a comprehensive review of its life history and fisheries biology.

Japanese researchers consider the subspecies in the waters around Japan to be composed of three seasonal broods, named after the time at which juveniles of the populations are first observed. The winter population ranges from the East South China Sea in the south to the coast of Sakhalin and southern Kamchatka in the north. Larvae are particularly abundant in the waters along the west and south coasts of Kyushu and the south coast of the Korean Peninsula during January and February. Juveniles are often found concentrated around temperature fronts.

The summer population is the most restricted in range and supports only small-scale, local fisheries. It is found in both the Japan Sea and off the Pacific coast. During August, larvae are found around Sado Island and the Oki Islands where they grow and from which they migrate to the southwestern Japan Sea for overwintering.

The autumn population is found from the East China Sea and the west coast of Kyushu north to the coast of Sakhalin. Larvae occur south of 39°N along the shelf of the northern East China Sea from October to December. Although this population is small on the Pacific coast of Japan, the autumn population in the Sea of Japan supports the major fishery, and individuals reach larger sizes at maturity than those in either the summer or the winter populations. The movements of the juveniles of this population are the least well documented (Okutani, 1983).

In Japanese waters, female T. p. pacificus reach maturity between 190 mm ML and 300 mm ML depending on whether they belong to the so-called “winter,” “autumn,” or “summer” populations. Males reach maturity at more than 200 mm ML (Hamabe et al., 1974).

Jig catches of this subspecies in the Northwest Pacific region increased to a maximum of 668,000 tons in 1968. During the 1970s there was a sudden fall in catches, and, except for 1980 (~325,000 tons), annual catches between 1977 and 1984 ranged from 170,000 to 240,000 tons (Okutani, 1977; Murata, 1990). In 1990, the annual reported landings were 164,000 tons (Government of Japan, 1991). Analysis of catch-per-unit-effort versus total effort for the period from 1954 to 1970 clearly indicates overfishing to have been responsible, at least in part, for the sharp and sustained decline in total catch (Araya, 1974; Okutani, 1977).

Larvae of T. p. pacificus have been well described and illustrated by Okutani (1965, 1968), who also reviewed earlier Japanese work. The embryology and early growth of hatchlings from egg masses produced by captive females were documented by Hamabe (1962).
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bibliographic citation
Voss, N. A. and Sweeney, M. J. 1998. "Systematics and Biogeography of cephalopods. Volume II." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 277-599. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.586.277

Japanese flying squid

provided by wikipedia EN

The Japanese flying squid, Japanese common squid or Pacific flying squid,[3] scientific name Todarodes pacificus, is a squid of the family Ommastrephidae. This animal lives in the northern Pacific Ocean, in the area surrounding Japan, along the entire coast of China up to Russia, then spreading across the Bering Strait east towards the southern coast of Alaska and Canada. They tend to cluster around the central region of Vietnam.

Description

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Ventral view of Todarodes pacificus
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One of the eight arms
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One of the two tentacular clubs

Adult squid have several distinguishing features. The mantle encloses the visceral mass of the squid, and has two fins, which are not the primary method of propulsion. Instead, the squid has a siphon, a muscle which takes in water from one side, and pushes it out the other side: jet propulsion. The squid has eight arms and two tentacles with suction cups along the backs. In between the arms sits the mouth, or beak. Inside the mouth is a tooth-tongue-like appendage called the radula. Squid have ink sacs, which they use as a defense mechanism against possible predators. Squid also have three hearts.[4]

The age of a squid can be determined on the basis of growth rings when additions are appended daily to the statoliths, balance organs in the back of the squid's head. This species of squid can weigh up to 0.5 kg. Mantle length in females can go up to 50 cm; males are smaller.[5]

Habitat

The Japanese squid can live in water from 5 to 27 °C, and tend to inhabit the upper layers of the ocean. They are short-lived, only surviving about a year. The flying squid live in surface water of 100 m, but can go as deep as 500 m.[6]

Life cycle

Within this year of life, the squid mature from their larval form, feed and grow, migrate, and at the end of their lives, congregate at the mating grounds, where they reproduce. Three subpopulations have been identified in Japanese waters. "The main group spawns in winter in the East China Sea, the second in autumn, west of Kyushu, and the third, minor group in spring/summer in the Sea of Japan as well as off northeastern Japan."[7]

"Their migration moves north, then south, tending to follow the surface currents.[8] The squid tend to travel in large schools of more or less uniform size [meaning] that it is often possible to follow the growth of cohorts from recruitment to spawning, although the earliest part of the life history is generally more difficult to study because the larvae are always pelagic and some are rarely caught".[9]

Squid generally only live one year because as soon as they reproduce, they die. Males mature first, and "transfer their spermatophores on the still immature females." Then, on the continuing journey south, the females "mature and spawn 300 to 4,000 small, elliptical or semi-spherical eggs." The squid migrate together, and lay all their eggs in the same area where they were born. The eggs hatch into larvae after only 102–113 hours (somewhere around five days), depending on the water temperature.[10]

Diet

Squid are difficult to study individually in the lab, because "the animals appear to become stressed by isolation".[11] However, the planktonic larvae are believed to feed on phytoplankton and zooplankton until they grow large enough to begin feeding on fish. When the squid mature more, they will eat mainly fish and crustaceans, but will also resort to cannibalism, especially when trapped in nets together.

"Flying"

Flying squid have been observed to cover distances as long as 30m[12] above the surface of the water, presumably to avoid predators or save energy as they migrate across vast expanses of ocean,[13] uniquely utilizing jet-propelled aerial locomotion.[14]

Predators

Many vertebrate predators depend heavily on squid, which is second only to krill as a food source in the Southern Ocean. Animals such as the grey-headed albatross and the sperm whale (the largest of the toothed whales) feed almost entirely on squid.[15] Other predators include dolphins, seals, baleen whales, and rays.

Fishery

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Japanese flying squid on 1993 Russia postal stamp.

Major fishers of the Japanese flying squid are mainly Japan (with the highest usage and catch in tons), the Republic of Korea (with the second-greatest catch), and relatively recently, China. Within all countries where it is being fished, the squid is also exported to many other countries for consumption, with the United States being a top importer. Japan is the largest consumer (mainly due to sushi) and exporter of the Japanese flying squid. (See also surume)

Japanese flying squid are caught all year round, but the largest and most popular seasons are from January to March, and again from June to September. Gear used to catch them is mainly line and hook, lift nets, and gill nets, the most popular method being hook and line used in jigging.

Current data on the Japanese flying squid show that, throughout the years, the rate of capture has fluctuated, with capture increasing and decreasing during 1970s to the 1990s. Since 2010, catches have ranged from 570,427 tonnes in 2010 to 351,229 tonnes in 2012.[16]

The fishing techniques used, mainly the hook-and-line methods, coupled with fishing at night to attract the squid, seem to allow for minimal by-catch. Other systems, such as gill nets, are usually less specific in what they catch, although some technological advances have involved larger openings to allow smaller animals to pass through.

References

  1. ^ Barratt, I.; Allcock, L. (2014). "Todarodes pacificus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T176085A1428473. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T176085A1428473.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b Julian Finn (2016). Bieler R, Bouchet P, Gofas S, Marshall B, Rosenberg G, La Perna R, Neubauer TA, Sartori AF, Schneider S, Vos C, ter Poorten JJ, Taylor J, Dijkstra H, Finn J, Bank R, Neubert E, Moretzsohn F, Faber M, Houart R, Picton B, Garcia-Alvarez O (eds.). "Todarodes pacificus (Steenstrup, 1880)". MolluscaBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  3. ^ "Pacific Flying Squid". Thermo Fisher Scientific. Archived from the original on 23 March 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  4. ^ Miller, Stephen (2006). Zoology, 7th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill.
  5. ^ "FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Species fact sheets". Retrieved December 19, 2011.
  6. ^ "Japanese Flying Squid" (PDF). Seafood Watch. 2016.
  7. ^ (FAO)
  8. ^ (FAO)
  9. ^ Wells, Martin J.; Clarke, Andrew (1996). "Energetics: The costs of living and reproducing for an individual cephalopod". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences. 351 (1343): 1083–1104. Bibcode:1996RSPTB.351.1083W. doi:10.1098/rstb.1996.0095.
  10. ^ (FAO)
  11. ^ (Wells)
  12. ^ Ozawa, Harumi. "Is it a bird? Is it a plane? No, it's a squid". Phys.Org. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  13. ^ Netburn, Deborah (February 21, 2012). "Flying squids: the rocket science behind cephalopods". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  14. ^ Jabr, Ferris (August 2, 2010). "Fact or Fiction: Can a Squid Fly out of Water?". Scientific American. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  15. ^ "Squid Australian Antarctic Division". Retrieved December 19, 2011.
  16. ^ FAO. "FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Aquatic species". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO. Retrieved 14 May 2015.

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Japanese flying squid: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Japanese flying squid, Japanese common squid or Pacific flying squid, scientific name Todarodes pacificus, is a squid of the family Ommastrephidae. This animal lives in the northern Pacific Ocean, in the area surrounding Japan, along the entire coast of China up to Russia, then spreading across the Bering Strait east towards the southern coast of Alaska and Canada. They tend to cluster around the central region of Vietnam.

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Habitat

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neritic to oceanic, epi-mesopelagic
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bibliographic citation
van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).
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Jacob van der Land [email]
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Jacob van der Land [email]