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Brief Summary

    Stellaria graminea: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Stellaria graminea is a species of flowering plant in the Caryophyllaceae family (like pinks) known by the common names common starwort, grass-leaved stitchwort, lesser stitchwort and grass-like starwort.

Comprehensive Description

    Stellaria graminea
    provided by wikipedia

    Stellaria graminea is a species of flowering plant in the Caryophyllaceae family (like pinks) known by the common names common starwort,[1] grass-leaved stitchwort,[1] lesser stitchwort[2] and grass-like starwort.[3]

    Description

    It is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing branching stems which are prostrate, sprawling, trailing, or erect, and reach up to about 90 centimeters long. The stems are four-angled, weak, and hairless. It is lined with pairs of linear or lance-shaped leaves, each 1–4 centimetres (0.39–1.57 in) long. The leaves are smooth-edged and hairless except for some hairs lining the bases. The inflorescence bears several flowers, each on a short pedicel. The flower has five pointed green sepals each a few millimeters long which are usually lined with hairs. There are five white petals, each so deeply lobed it appears to be two. The seeds are reddish brown in colour and are 1 millimetre (0.039 in) in diameter.[1] It bears 10 stamens.[4]

    Distribution

    It is native to Eurasia but it is widespread around other parts of the temperate world as an introduced species and a common weed.[5]

    Habitat

    It grows in many types of habitat, including lawns and roadsides.

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    References

    1. ^ a b c "Stellaria graminea". Flora of North America. EFlora. Retrieved June 18, 2007..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 25 January 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
    3. ^ "Stellaria graminea". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
    4. ^ Parnell, J. and Curtis, T. 2012. Webb's An Irish Flora. Cork University Press. ISBN 978-185918-4783.
    5. ^ "Stellaria graminea". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 18 June 2007.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Europe, C. Asia, Himalaya, Siberia, Mongolia, Tibet.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    introduced; St. Pierre and Miquelon; B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Calif., Colo., Conn., D.C., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis.; Europe.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Gansu, Hubei, Qinghai, Shandong, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang [Afghanistan, India, Kashmir, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, ?Sikkim; Europe].

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    In Europe, both diploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Stellaria graminea occur with occasional triploid hybrids. Only the tetraploid form has been found in North America, except for a triploid colony in Newfoundland. This species is often confused with S. longifolia but differs in its stems, which are very angular, glabrous, and not scabrid; the narrowly triangular leaves on the flowering stems; the smooth leaf margins; the stiff, triangular, prominently 3-veined sepals; and the larger, rugulose seeds.

    The sterile overwintering shoots of Stellaria graminea have broader elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate leaf blades measuring 5-15 × 1.5-4 mm. They are broadest near the middle. This state of the plant has been named var. latifolia Petermann. Usually S. graminea has perfect flowers but occasionally plants that are entirely staminate-sterile are encountered. The flowers in these are partially fertile depending on the occurrence of cross- pollination.

    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Plants perennial, coarse, rhi-zomatous; rhizomes slender, elongate. Stems decumbent or ascending, straggling, diffusely branched, smoothly 4-angled, 20-90 cm, brittle, glabrous. Leaves sessile; blade linear-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, widest near base, 1.5-4 cm × 1-6 mm, base round, margins smooth, apex acute, often ciliate near base, otherwise glabrous, not glaucous. Inflorescences terminal, 5-many-flowered, open, conspicuously branched cymes; bracts narrowly lanceolate, 1-5 mm, wholly scarious, margins ciliate, apex acuminate. Pedicels divaricate, 10-30 mm, glabrous. Flowers 5-12 mm diam., rarely larger; sepals 5, distinctly 3-veined, narrowly lanceolate to triangular, 3-7 mm, margins narrow, straight, scarious, apex acute, glabrous; petals 5, 3-7 mm, equaling or longer than sepals; stamens 10, all, some, or none fully developed and fertile; styles 3, ascending, ca. 3 mm. Capsules green or straw colored, narrowly ovoid, 5-7 mm, longer than sepals, apex acute, opening by 3 valves, splitting into 6; carpophore absent. Seeds reddish brown, reniform-rotund, ca. 1 mm diam., rugose in concentric rings. 2n = 39, 52.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Herbs perennial, often glabrous. Stems densely tufted, slightly erect, quadrangular, 10--30 cm tall, slender, glabrous or with 2 lines of hairs; sterile branches axillary from proximal leaves present. Leaves sessile, pinkish green, linear to lanceolate, 0.5--4(--5) cm × 1.5--3(--4) mm, basal margin sparsely ciliate, midvein inconspicuous, base slightly narrowed, apex acute. Flowers many or sometimes few, in terminal or axillary cymes, 7--11 mm in diam.; bracts lanceolate, 2(--5) mm, midvein conspicuous, margin membranous. Pedicel 0.5--2.5 cm, to 3.8 cm in fruit, slender. Sepals 5, green, lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, 4--4.5 mm or longer, shiny, 3-veined, margin membranous, apex acuminate. Petals 5, slightly shorter or longer than sepals, 2-cleft nearly to base. Stamens 10; filaments filiform, glabrous, 4--4.5 mm; anthers brown, broadly ellipsoid, ca. 0.3 mm. Ovary ovoid-oblong; styles 3(or 4), ca. 2 mm. Capsule ovoid-cylindric, much longer than persistent sepals. Seeds black-brown, nearly compressed orbicular, granulose. Fl. May--Jul, fr. Aug--Sep. 2n = 26, 39, 52.
    Elevation Range
    provided by eFloras
    3000-3200 m

Diagnostic Description

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Rough grasslands, pastures, hayfields, roadsides; 0-1200m.
    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Forests, forest margins, grasslands, grassy slopes, rock crevices; 1400--4000(--4200) m.

Cyclicity

    Flowering/Fruiting
    provided by eFloras
    Flowering late spring-early summer.