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Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre

Brief Summary

    Persicaria hydropiper: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Persicaria hydropiper (syn. Polygonum hydropiper), also known as water-pepper, water pepper or marshpepper knotweed, is a plant of the family Polygonaceae. It grows in damp places and shallow water. It is a widespread plant, found in Australia, New Zealand, temperate Asia, Europe, and North America. It has some use as a spice because of its pungent flavor.

Comprehensive Description

    Persicaria hydropiper
    provided by wikipedia

    Persicaria hydropiper (syn. Polygonum hydropiper), also known as water-pepper, water pepper or marshpepper knotweed, is a plant of the family Polygonaceae. It grows in damp places and shallow water. It is a widespread plant, found in Australia, New Zealand, temperate Asia, Europe, and North America.[3][4][5][6] It has some use as a spice because of its pungent flavor.

    Description

    Water pepper is an annual herb with an erect stem growing to a height of 20 to 70 cm (8 to 28 in). The leaves are alternate and almost stalkless. The leaf blades are narrowly ovate and have entire margins fringed by very short hairs. They are tapering with a blunt apex. Each leaf base has stipules which are fused into a stem-enclosing sheath that is loose and fringed at the upper end. The inflorescence is a nodding spike. The perianth of each tiny flower consists of four or five segments, united near its green base and white or pink at the edges. There are six stamens, three fused carpels and three styles. The fruit is a dark brown oval, flattened nut.[7]

    Active ingredients

    Water-pepper has several active ingredients. Two bicyclic sesquiterpenoids are present, polygodial (tadeonal, an unsaturated dialdehyde with a drimane backbone) and waburganal, which has been found responsible for the pungent taste (hence its edibility).[8] The plant also contains rutin, a source of the bitter taste impression.

    The plant contains an essential oil (0.5%) which consists of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids: α-pinene, β-pinene, 1,4-cineol, fenchone, α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, trans-β-bergamotene. Carboxylic acids (cinnamic, valeric and caproic acid) and their esters were present in traces. The composition depends strongly on genetic factors.

    Edibility

    In Japan, this plant's leaves are used as a vegetable - these are from the cultivar, not the wild type which has a far more pungent taste. Wild waterpepper produces oils that cause skin irritation,[9] and the many acids in its tissues, including formic acid, make the plant unpalatable to livestock.[10] Young red sprouts are used as a sashimi garnish, and are known as beni-tade (紅蓼, red water pepper). Though livestock do not eat the wild type, some insects do, giving rise to the Japanese saying Tade kuu mushi mo sukizuki (蓼食う虫も好き好き, Some insects eat water pepper and like it), which may be translated as “There is no accounting for taste.” or more narrowly “Some prefer nettles.”

    The seeds of the water-pepper may be added to wasabi.

     src= Wikimedia Commons has media related to Persicaria hydropiper.

    Water-pepper sauce are known as Tade-zu (蓼酢, water pepper vinegar) is a sauce traditionally made from finely chopped water-pepper leaves, soaked in vinegar, and a small amount of steamed-rice. Occasionally, the juice from a squeezed Kabosu is added. In Japanese cuisine it is traditionally used as a complement to grilled Freshwater fish (but usually not other grilled fishes).

    References

    1. ^ illustration From: La flore et la pomone françaises, ou histoire et figures en couleur, des fleurs et des fruits de France ou naturalisés sur le sol français by Jean Henri Jaume Saint-Hilaire. Paris, the author, 1832, volume 5 (plate 485).
    2. ^ The Plant List, Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre
    3. ^ Flora of China, Polygonum hydropiper Linnaeus, 1753. 辣蓼 la liao
    4. ^ Dennis I. Morris DI (2009) Polygonaceae, version 2009:1. In MF Duretto (Ed.) Flora of Tasmania Online. 17 pp. (Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum & Art Gallery: Hobart). .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 978-1-921599-30-9 (PDF). www.tmag.tas.gov.au/floratasmania
    5. ^ Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
    6. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Spach includes photos, drawings, European distribution map
    7. ^ "Water pepper: Persicaria hydropiper". NatureGate. Retrieved 2013-12-30.
    8. ^ Jonassohn, M. (1996). Sesquiterpenoid unsaturated dialdehydes - Structural properties that affect reactivity and bioactivity. Doctoral thesis, Lund University, Sweden. ISBN 91-628-2215-2. "[1]". External link in |title= (help); Missing or empty |url= (help)[2] (730 KiB)
    9. ^ Flora of North America
    10. ^ Illinois Wildflowers

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    N. Africa, Europe, Himalaya, India, east to China and Japan, Malaysia, N. America.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    introduced; St. Pierre and Miquelon; B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Ala., Alaska, Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Europe; introduced also in Asia; nw Africa; Pacific Islands (Hawaii, New Zealand); Australia.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Distribution: Widely distributed in N. W. Africa, Temperate Asia, Pakistan, India, extending to far east up to Japan, N. America.

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    All parts of Persicaria hydropiper have an acrid, pepperlike taste. The plants have a long history of medicinal use in Europe, and the oily exudate produced in multicellular glands can cause skin irritation, hence the common name smartweed (R. S. Mitchell and J. K. Dean 1978). Some Native American tribes used P. hydropiper as a drug to treat a variety of ailments, and the Cherokee and Iroquois consumed it as food (D. E. Moerman 1998).

    Herbarium specimens of Persicaria hydropiper often are misidentified as P. punctata. In addition to its minutely roughened and dull achenes, P. hydropiper differs from P. punctata frequently in bearing flowers enclosed in the ocreae, the inflorescences thus appearing somewhat leafy. By contrast, inflorescences of P. punctata generally appear terminal and leafless.

    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Plants annual, 2-8(-10) dm; roots also often arising from proximal nodes; rhizomes and stolons absent. Stems decumbent to ascending or erect, branched, without noticeable ribs, glabrous, glandular-punctate. Leaves: ocrea brown, cylindric or funnelform, (8-)10-15 mm, chartaceous, base inflated, margins truncate, ciliate with bristles 1-4 mm, surface glabrous or strigose, usually glandular-punctate; petiole 0.1-0.8 cm, glandular-punctate, leaves sometimes sessile; blade without dark triangular or lunate blotch adaxially, lanceolate to narrowly rhombic, (1.5-)4-10(-15) × 0.4-2.5 cm, base tapered or cuneate, margins antrorsely strigose, apex acute to acuminate, faces glabrous or scabrous along midveins, glandular-punctate, sometimes obscurely so adaxially. Inflorescences terminal and axillary, erect or nodding, interrupted or uninterrupted distally, 30-180 × 5-9 mm; peduncle (0-)10-50 mm, sometimes absent on axillary inflorescences and flowers thus enclosed in ocreae, glabrous, glandular-punctate; ocreolae not overlapping or overlapping distally, margins eciliate or ciliate with bristles to 1 mm. Pedicels ascending, 1-3 mm. Flowers 1-3(-5) per ocreate fascicle, homostylous; perianth greenish proximally, white or pink distally, glandular-punctate with punctae ± uniformly distributed, scarcely accrescent; tepals 4-5, connate ca. 3 their length, petaloid, obovate, 2-3.5 mm, veins prominent or not, not anchor-shaped, margins entire, apex obtuse to rounded; stamens 6-8, included; anthers pink or red, elliptic to ovate; styles 2-3, connate proximally. Achenes included or apex exserted, brownish black, biconvex or 3-gonous, 1.9-3 × 1.5-2 mm, dull, minutely roughened. 2n = 20.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Erect, 30-45 (-50) cm high with tufted roots branched from base or above, or sometime simple, annual to perennial herb. Stem glabrous, brown, sometimes shining. Leaves 1.5-8 (-10) x 0.4-1.5 (-2) cm, linear lanceolate to lanceolate, acuminate, margin ciliate, surface glabrous or scabrous or slightly pubescent beneath on the midrib and reddish punctate gland-dotted on both surfaces, petiole 0.2-0.4 cm long. Ochreae 0.25-1.5 (-2.0) cm long, glabrous, ciliae at the mouth of ochrea 1-4 mm long. Inflorescence 3-7 cm long, lax, flowers ± distant, erect, not drooping pedunculate raceme; peduncles 1.0-6.5 cm long. Flowers 1.0-2.0 mm across, pedicellate; pedicel 0.5-1.25 mm long. Ochreolae 1.0-2.0 mm long, ovate, dentate-entire, gland-dotted. Tepals 5, pink, 1.0-3.0 x 0.75-1.5 mm, obovate, obtuse, red gland-dotted. Stamens 6, filaments long, unequal. Ovary 0.5-1.5 x 0.5-0.75 mm, trigonous, elliptic with 3 or sometimes 2 styles united in the upper half, then free; stigma capitate. Nuts 2.5-3.5 (-4) x 1.5-2.0 mm, mostly trigonous, sometimes biconvex within the same raceme, dark brownish, pubescent.
    Elevation Range
    provided by eFloras
    900-2300 m

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Polygonum hydropiper Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 361. 1753; P. hydropiper var. projectum Stanford
    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Polygonum hydropiper L., Sp. Pl. 361. 1753; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 39. 1886; excl. var. eglandulosa Hook.f.; Kitamura, Pl. W. Pak. & Afgh. 44. 1964; D.A.Webb & Chater in Tutin et al., Fl. Europ. 1:79. 1964; Coode & Cullen in P.H.Davis, Fl. Turk. 2: 274. 1966; Schiman-Czeika & Rech. f. in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 56: 60. 1968; R.R.Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 1: 206. 1977; P. korrense Nakai in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 33: 6. 1919; Nakai in Mor. Enum. Pl. Cor. 132. 1922.

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Shorelines of lake and ponds, banks of streams and rivers, fens, forested wetlands, pastures, occasionally waste ground; 0-1500m.
    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    A fairly common and widespread species, grows in ditches, on banks and moist shady places from plains to 2000 m. Easily recognized by its red glandular punctate leaves and red glandular perianth and interrupted racemes. Nuts are variable. Trigonous and biconvex nuts are sometimes found within the same raceme.

Cyclicity