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Chimaphila menziesii (R. Br. ex D. Don) Spreng.

Brief Summary

    Chimaphila menziesii: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Chimaphila menziesii, known by the common name little prince's pine, is a species of perennial wildflower in the heath family.

    This plant is found scattered throughout the mountains of western North America where it grows in the understory of coniferous forests. It is native to the Western United States and Southwest Canada.

Comprehensive Description

    Chimaphila menziesii
    provided by wikipedia

    Chimaphila menziesii, known by the common name little prince's pine, is a species of perennial wildflower in the heath family.

    This plant is found scattered throughout the mountains of western North America where it grows in the understory of coniferous forests. It is native to the Western United States and Southwest Canada.[1]

    Description

    Chimaphila menziesii is a short flower with a slender reddish stem not exceeding 15 centimeters. The leaves are lance-shaped and a leathery rich green with light veins and tiny widely spaced teeth along the edges.

    The inflorescence atop the stem produces hanging flowers on long stalks. Each flower is white to dark pink, with spreading petals around a thick center. A ring of stamens with large tubular anthers surrounds an ovary with a large buttonlike stigma. It is similar to, but smaller than, its relative the prince's pine, Chimaphila umbellata.

    References

    1. ^ "Plants Profile for Chimaphila menziesii (little prince's pine)". plants.usda.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-03..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Little prince's-pine is distributed from British Columbia south to the
    San Jacinto Mountains in southern California and east to Idaho, Montana,
    and Utah [16,17,22,24,25,40].
    Occurrence in North America
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    CA ID MT NV OR UT WA BC
    Regional Distribution in the Western United States
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    1 Northern Pacific Border
    2 Cascade Mountains
    3 Southern Pacific Border
    4 Sierra Mountains
    5 Columbia Plateau
    6 Upper Basin and Range
    7 Lower Basin and Range
    8 Northern Rocky Mountains
    12 Colorado Plateau

Morphology

    Description
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: forb, shrub

    Little prince's-pine is a native, evergreen, low rhizomatous shrub or
    perennial forb. The woody stems are usually 2 to 6 inches (5-15 cm)
    tall and the leathery, whorled leaves are sharply serrate. The plant
    has one to three flowers. Fruits are depressed, globose capsules that
    often persist through the winter [17,22,24,40].

Habitat

    Habitat characteristics
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Little prince's-pine is found in montane to subalpine coniferous forests
    [16,17,20,22,26]. In coastal regions of British Columbia little
    prince's-pine is an indicator of moderately dry to moist soils within
    maritime to submaritime, cool mesothermal climates [19]. On peaks of
    the Santa Lucia and Diablo ranges of California, little prince's-pine is
    confined to steep, rocky slopes above 4,000 feet (1,200 m) [11]. On the
    Mount Hood and Willamette National Forests, it occurs on moist to wet,
    imperfectly to well-drained sites at elevations from 2,700 to 6,100 feet
    (800-1,850 m). Soils range from deep sandy, silty, or clay loams
    developed from volcanic tephra to shallow, stony loams developed from
    colluvium or glacial till [15].
    Habitat: Cover Types
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    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

    205 Mountain hemlock
    206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir
    207 Red fir
    208 Whitebark pine
    210 Interior Douglas-fir
    211 White fir
    212 Western larch
    213 Grand fir
    215 Western white pine
    218 Lodgepole pine
    223 Sitka spruce
    224 Western hemlock
    225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce
    226 Coastal true fir - hemlock
    227 Western redcedar - western hemlock
    228 Western redcedar
    229 Pacific Douglas-fir
    230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock
    231 Port-Orford-cedar
    232 Redwood
    234 Douglas-fir - tanoak - Pacific madrone
    237 Interior ponderosa pine
    238 Western juniper
    243 Sierra Nevada mixed conifer
    244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir
    245 Pacific ponderosa pine
    247 Jeffrey pine
    256 California mixed subalpine
    Habitat: Ecosystem
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

    FRES20 Douglas-fir
    FRES21 Ponderosa pine
    FRES22 Western white pine
    FRES23 Fir - spruce
    FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce
    FRES25 Larch
    FRES26 Lodgepole pine
    FRES27 Redwood
    Habitat: Plant Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

    More info for the terms: forest, shrub

    K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest
    K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest
    K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest
    K004 Fir - hemlock forest
    K005 Mixed conifer forest
    K006 Redwood forest
    K007 Red fir forest
    K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest
    K010 Ponderosa shrub forest
    K011 Western ponderosa forest
    K012 Douglas-fir forest
    K013 Cedar - hemlock - pine forest
    K014 Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest
    K015 Western spruce - fir forest
    Key Plant Community Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: codominant, tree

    Little prince's-pine occurs in coniferous forests throughout its range
    but is not listed as a dominant or codominant understory species in
    available publications. In addition to tree species already mentioned,
    little prince's-pine also occurs under noble fir (Abies procera), Washoe
    pine (Pinus washoensis), sugar pine (P. lambertiana), incense-cedar
    (Libocedrus decurrens), and Alaska-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis)
    [1,12,15,20,29].

    Some species commonly associated with little prince's-pine include Rocky
    Mountain maple (Acer glabrum), Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), Saskatoon
    serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.),
    currant (Ribes spp.), baldhip rose (Rosa gymnocarpa), huckleberry
    (Vaccinium spp.), salal (Gaultheria shallon), twinflower (Linnaea
    borealis), queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora), sweet-scented
    bedstraw (Galium trifolium), threeleaf foamflower (Tiarella trifoliata),
    oneleaf foamflower (T. unifoliata), starry Solomon-seal (Smilacina
    stellata), Pacific trillium (Trillium ovatum), violet (Viola spp.),
    white hawkweed (Hieracium albiflorum), whitevein shinleaf (Pyrola
    picta), sidebells shinleaf (P. secunda), western rattlesnake plantain
    (Goodyera oblongifolia), American trailplant (Adenocaulon bicolor), and
    Ross' sedge (Carex rossii) [5,23,27,37,38].

General Ecology

    Fire Ecology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: duff, fire severity, fire-sensitive species, severity

    Since little prince's-pine is similar to prince's-pine, it probably is a
    fire-sensitive species that is very susceptible to damage and usually
    shows a strong decline following fire [32,34,36]. Survival is most
    likely dependent on depth of rhizomes, fire severity, and consumption of
    duff [8,31,36]. Postfire vegetative recovery probably depends primarily
    on scattered individuals surviving in undisturbed microsites [13].
    Fire Management Considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: habitat type

    Little prince's-pine was not present on burned or unburned clearcut
    sites in grand fir (Abies grandis)/pachistima (Pachistima myrsinites)
    habitat types in Oregon. It was present, however, in 175-year-old,
    unlogged, adjacent stands [5]. In the same habitat type in Idaho,
    prince's-pine was present in 70 percent of near-climax control stands
    but only 10 percent of 1-year-old clearcut and burned stands. It was
    also absent from 3, 8, 12, and 23-year-old clearcut and burned stands
    [42].
    Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the terms: chamaephyte, geophyte

    Chamaephyte
    Geophyte
    Life Form
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: forb, shrub

    Shrub, Forb
    Post-fire Regeneration
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: fire regime, herb, rhizome

    Rhizomatous low woody plant, rhizome in organic mantle
    Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil


    FIRE REGIMES :
    Find fire regime information for the plant communities in
    which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find FIRE REGIMES".
    Regeneration Processes
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: duff

    Little prince's-pine reproduces both sexually and vegetatively. It
    develops numerous, minute seeds [24]. Their dispersal mechanism has not
    been documented.

    Little prince's-pine rhizomes have not been described in the literature.
    They are probably, however, like those of prince's-pine, confined to the
    duff near or above the mineral soil surface [36].
    Successional Status
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    More info on this topic.

    More info for the terms: cover, succession

    Little prince's-pine is present in all stages of succession [4,5,18,30].
    It is shade tolerant [10,19] and is an indicator of low light levels in
    some plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province
    [2]. It occurs in the late stages of postfire succession in white fir
    (Abies concolor) stands of the northern Sierra Nevada, probably in
    response to low light levels [4]. In mixed conifer stands in the
    Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon, little prince's-pine develops
    highest cover at intermediate light levels [6].

Cyclicity

    Phenology
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    More info on this topic.

    Little prince's-pine flowers from June to August in California [24].

Management

    Management considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: forest, selection, tree

    In the Vancouver Forest District, British Columbia, little prince's-pine
    is used as an indicator species in several biogeoclimatic units for which
    guidelines for site diagnosis, tree species selection, and slash burning
    have been developed [10].

Taxonomy

    Common Names
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    little prince's-pine
    little prince's pine
    Synonyms
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Pyrola menziesii R. Br. ex D. Don [17,24,40]
    Taxonomy
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    The currently accepted scientific name of little prince's-pine is
    Chimaphila menziesii (R. Br.) Sprengel [17,22,24,40]. There are no
    recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms.

    Little prince's-pine is closely related to prince's-pine (C. umbellata)
    but is smaller in stature [14,33].