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Bixa orellana is cultivated for the red, oil-soluble pigment, bixin, which is contained in the seed coat. It is used commercially as a food colorant and as a fabric dye. A paste prepared from the seeds is used as a skin paint (a common name is "lipstick tree") and as a condiment. Other parts of the plant are widely used in tropical America for a variety of medicinal purposes.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of China Vol. 13: 71 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Description

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Shrubs or small trees, evergreen, 2-5(-10) m tall. Branches brown, densely red-brown glandular hairy. Petiole erect, 2.5-5 cm, glabrous; leaf blade abaxially pale green, with resinlike gland dots, adaxially deep green, cordate-ovate or triangular-ovate, (5-)10-25 × (3.3-)5-13(-16.5) cm, palmately 5-veined, glabrous, base rounded or subtruncate, sometimes slightly cordate, margin entire, apex acuminate. Panicles robust, often flat-topped, 5-10 cm, densely red-brown scaly and glandular hairy; bracts caducous, leaving scalelike scars. Flowers 4-5 cm in diam.; pedicel 4-12 mm. Sepals obovate, 8-10 × ca. 7 mm, densely red-brown scaly, with glands at base. Petals bright pink, mauve, or white with pale red veins, obovate, (1-)1.5-3 × 0.8-2 cm. Stamens many; anthers yellow, apically dehiscent. Capsule subglobose or ovoid, slightly laterally compressed, (1.4-)2-4.5 cm, usually densely purple-brown spiny, rarely smooth; spines 1-2 cm. Seeds numerous, red-brown, obovoid-angular, 4-5 mm.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of China Vol. 13: 71 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Habitat & Distribution

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Cultivated, tolerant of poor soils but intolerant of shade. Guangdong, Taiwan, Yunnan [native to tropical America; cultivated pantropically].
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 13: 71 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Brief Summary

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The seeds of the shrubby Achiote or Annatto tree (Bixa orellana) are the source of annatto dye, which contains the soluble reddish-orange carotenoid pigment known as bixin, one of the most widely used natural colorants in the world (second only to saffron in economic importance). Annatto has major uses in the food and cosmetics industries and annual world consumption exceeds 10,000 metric tons. There are a range of varieties of Achiote that differ in traits including not only the shape and color of flowers and seed capsules, but also pigment concentration. The market price of annatto is proportional to its bixin concentration. (Nisha et al. 2012; Akshatha et al. 2011) Annatto, which is the only member of the plant family Bixaceae, is cultivated widely in the tropics. It was widely distributed and cultivated in the New World tropics long before being spread around the globe (Leal and Michelangeli de Clavijo 2010). The leaves of the plant are ovate with a round, heart-shaped base and a pointed tip. The petioles (leaf stalks) are swollen at both the base and apex. The flowers may be white, pink, or purple. The fruit capsules are bi-valved (i.e. with two halves that fit together) and covered with soft bristles. Upon ripening, they split open to reveal numerous reddish-orange seeds. Annatto is produced mainly in the aril portion of the seed. Bixin is an apocarotenoid and constitutes up to 82% (w/w) of the total pigment present. Akshatha et al. (2011) found that plants bearing pink flowers and red ovate fruit-bearing varieties were superior in their growth, number of fruits per bunch, seed number per fruit, and annatto pigment content. (Akshatha et al. 2011 and references therein) Aspects of the cultivation of Achiote and the downstream processing of annatto pigment have been reviewed by Aparnathi et al. (1990) and Satyanarayana et al. (2003), respectively. There has been much interest in analyzing the biochemical pathways used by Achiote to synthesize bixin, as well as in understanding the genetic and biochemical bases for differences among varieties. These investigations may lead to the development of more efficient and more predictable methods of bixin production through genetic engineering and/or tissue or cell culture (e.g., Bouvier et al. 2003; Rodríguez-Ávila et al. 2011; Mahendranath et al. 2011) Although not completely up-to-date, much information on international trade in annatto is available from the 1995 FAO publication Natural Colourants and Dyestuffs.
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Derivation of specific name

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orellana: pre-Linnaean name
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Bixa orellana L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/cult/species.php?species_id=164440
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Description

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Description as for the genus.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Bixa orellana L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/cult/species.php?species_id=164440
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Bixa orellana

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"Achiote" redirects here. For the corregimiento in Panama, see Achiote, Colón.
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Achiote (Bixa orellana) is a shrub or small tree originating from the tropical region of the Americas. North, Central, and South American natives originally used the seeds to make red body paint and lipstick, as well as a spice. For this reason, the achiote is sometimes called the lipstick tree.

The tree is best known as the source of annatto, a natural orange-red condiment (also called "achiote" or "bijol") obtained from the waxy arils that cover its seeds. The ground seeds are widely used in traditional dishes in Central and South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean, such as cochinita pibil, chicken in achiote and caldo de olla. Annatto and its extracts are also used as an industrial food coloring to add yellow or orange color to many products such as butter, cheese, sausages, cakes, and popcorn.

The species name was given by Linnaeus after the Spanish conquistador Francisco de Orellana, an early explorer of the Amazon River.[2] The name achiote derives from the Nahuatl word for the shrub, āchiotl [aːˈt͡ʃiot͡ɬ]. It may also be referred to as aploppas, or by its original Tupi name uruku, urucu or urucum ("red color"), which is also used for the body paint prepared from its seeds.

Characteristics

Bixa orellana is a tall shrub to small evergreen tree 6–10 m (20–33 ft) high. It bears clusters of 5 cm (2 in) bright white to pink flowers, resembling single wild roses, appearing at the tips of the branches. The fruits are in clusters: spiky looking red-brown seed pods covered in soft spines. Each pod contains many seeds covered with a thin waxy blood-red aril. When fully mature, the pod dries, hardens, and splits open, exposing the seeds.

The color of the seed coating is due mainly to the carotenoid pigments bixin and norbixin.

Cultivation

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Achiote flower.
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Mature achiote pods, showing the red seeds.

Bixa orellana originated in South America but it has spread to many parts of the world. It is grown easily and quickly in frost-free regions, from sub-tropical to tropical climates, and sheltered from cool winds. It prefers year-round moisture, good drainage, and moderately fertile soil in full sun or partial shade. It can be propagated from seed and cuttings. Cutting-grown plants flower at a younger age than seedlings.[3]

The main commercial producers are countries in South America, Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and also India and Sri Lanka, where it was introduced by the Spanish in the 17th century. Production statistics are not usually available, and would not provide a reliable guide to international trade since many of the producing countries use significant quantities domestically (e.g. Brazil is a large producer and consumer, needing additional imports). Annual world production of dried annatto seed at the beginning of the 21st century was estimated at about 10,000 tons, of which 7,000 tons enter international trade. Peru is the largest exporter of annatto seed, annually about 4,000 tons; Brazil the largest producer with about 5,000 tons. Kenya exports annually about 1,500 tons annatto seed and extracts and is the second-largest exporter, after Peru. Côte d'Ivoire and Angola are also exporters.[4]

Industrial uses

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Oil of Bixa orellana

Before synthetic dyes revolutionized industry, the tree was planted commercially for the pigment, extracted by solvent or boiling the seeds in oil, which was used to color cheese, margarine, chocolate, fabric and paints. Annatto oil is rich in tocotrienols, beta-carotene, essential oil, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids and vitamin C.[5] The seeds are collected from wild-growing bushes or from plantations in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.

Culinary uses

Ground B. orellana seeds are often mixed with other seeds or spices to form a paste or powder for culinary use especially in Latin American, Jamaican, Chamorro, and Filipino cuisines. The seeds are heated in oil or lard to extract its dye and flavor for use in dishes and processed foods such as cheese, butter, soup, gravy, sauces, cured meats, and other items. The seeds impart a subtle flavor and aroma and a yellow to reddish-orange color to food. The seeds are used to color and flavor rice instead of the much more expensive saffron.

In Brazil, a powder known as colorau or colorífico is made from the ground seeds combined with filler seeds like maize. This powder is similar to and sometimes replaces paprika.[6]

The Yucatecan condiment called recado rojo or "achiote paste" is made from ground seeds combined with other spices. It is a mainstay of the Mexican and Belizean cuisines.

A condiment called sazón is commonly used in Spanish, Latin American, and Caribbean cuisine for meats and fish. Sazón is made from achiote (annatto) seeds, cumin, coriander seeds, salt, and garlic powder. The Spanish word sazón means "season" or "seasoning".

Traditional medical uses

The tree used in the traditional medicine/Ayurveda of India, where different parts of the plant are used to treat various disorders,[7].

Other uses

Achiote has long been used by American Indians to make a bright red paint for the body and hair. Body-painting with urucu remains an important tradition of many Brazilian native tribes. It was reportedly used for body paint among the native Taínos in Borinquen, Puerto Rico. The use of achiote hair dye by men of the Tsáchila of Ecuador is the origin of their Spanish name, the Colorados.

The Aztec people of Mexico used achiote seeds as source of a red ink for manuscript painting in the 16th century.[8]

The plant is also valued for its stem fibre (used in rope mats) and an adhesive gum which is extracted from all parts.[9][10][11]

Traditionally, the plant has been used to make sindoor,[12][13].

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Levy, Luis W.; Rivadeneira, Diana M. (2000). "Annatto". In Lauro, Gabriel J.; Francis, F. Jack. Natural Food Colorants Science and Technology. IFT Basic Symposium Series. New York: Marcel Dekker. p. 115. ISBN 0-8247-0421-5..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ Lord, Tony (2003) Flora : The Gardener's Bible : More than 20,000 garden plants from around the world. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36435-5
  4. ^ Jansen, P.C.M. (2005). Jansen, P.C.M.; Cardon, D., eds. "Bixa orellana L." PROTA 3: Dyes and tannins/Colorants et tanins. PROTA. Archived from the original on 20 Nov 2008. Retrieved 5 Oct 2014.
  5. ^ Ângela de Almeida Meireles, Maria; Lima Cavalcante de Albuquerque, Carolina. "Processo otimizado para obtenção de óleo rico em antioxidantes de urucum" (PDF). Inova (in Portuguese). Unicamp. Retrieved 2 Jun 2015.
  6. ^ "New Crops from Brazil". Purdue University. 1990. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  7. ^ Khare, C.P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. ISBN 978-0-387-70638-2. cited in Wanga, Limei; Waltenbergerb, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzigc, Eva-Maria; et al. (30 July 2014). "Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review". Biochemical Pharmacology. Elsevier. 92: 73–89. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2014.07.018. ISSN 0006-2952. PMC 4212005. PMID 25083916. Retrieved 9 Aug 2014.
  8. ^ "Colorants Used During Mexico's Early Colonial Period". Stanford University. 1997. Archived from the original on March 20, 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  9. ^ Ellison, Don (1999) Cultivated Plants of the World. London: New Holland (1st ed.: Brisbane: Flora Publications International, 1995)
  10. ^ Graf, Alfred Byrd (1986) Tropica: color cyclopedia of exotic plants and trees for warm-region horticulture--in cool climate the summer garden or sheltered indoors; 3rd ed. East Rutherford, N.J.: Roehrs Co
  11. ^ Macoboy, Stirling (1979) What Tree is That?, Sydney, Australia (1st ed.: Sydney: Ure Smith). ISBN 0-7254-0480-9
  12. ^ Manandhar, N. P. (2002). Plants and People of Nepal. Portland, OR: Timber Press. p. 113. ISBN 9780881925272.
  13. ^ Pathak, Jyoti (23 June 2013). "Taste of Nepal: Sindur Tree of Nepal (सिन्दुर को रुख) Sindure". Retrieved 19 Oct 2017.
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Bixa orellana: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Achiote (Bixa orellana) is a shrub or small tree originating from the tropical region of the Americas. North, Central, and South American natives originally used the seeds to make red body paint and lipstick, as well as a spice. For this reason, the achiote is sometimes called the lipstick tree.

The tree is best known as the source of annatto, a natural orange-red condiment (also called "achiote" or "bijol") obtained from the waxy arils that cover its seeds. The ground seeds are widely used in traditional dishes in Central and South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean, such as cochinita pibil, chicken in achiote and caldo de olla. Annatto and its extracts are also used as an industrial food coloring to add yellow or orange color to many products such as butter, cheese, sausages, cakes, and popcorn.

The species name was given by Linnaeus after the Spanish conquistador Francisco de Orellana, an early explorer of the Amazon River. The name achiote derives from the Nahuatl word for the shrub, āchiotl [aːˈt͡ʃiot͡ɬ]. It may also be referred to as aploppas, or by its original Tupi name uruku, urucu or urucum ("red color"), which is also used for the body paint prepared from its seeds.

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