dcsimg
542.3837000690.130x130
Life » » Plants » » Cabbage family »

Mouse Ear Cress

Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

Brief Summary

    Arabidopsis thaliana: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa. A. thaliana is considered a weed; it is found by roadsides and in disturbed land.

    A winter annual with a relatively short life cycle, A. thaliana is a popular model organism in plant biology and genetics. For a complex multicellular eukaryote, A. thaliana has a relatively small genome of approximately 135 megabase pairs (Mbp). It was the first plant to have its genome sequenced, and is a popular tool for understanding the molecular biology of many plant traits, including flower development and light sensing.

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress or mouse-ear cress, is small herbaceous annual flowering plants in the Brassicaceae (mustard family, which also includes cabbage and broccoli). As noted in the Flora of North America (2012) “Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely used model organism in plant biology. Its small genome size, fully sequenced in the year 2000, chromosome number, fast growth cycle (from seed germination to set in four to six weeks), small size (hundreds can be grown in a pot and thousands in a growth chamber), autogamous breeding system (induced mutations are expressed in two generations), and ability to grow on various synthetic media, all make the species an ideal system in experimental biology.” A. thaliana is a small plant, 2 to 25 cm (1 to 9.5 in) in height, with a basal rosette of leaves that are 0.8 to 3.5 cm (0.3 to 1.3 in) long and up to 1 cm (0.4 in) wide; cauline leaves (on the flowering stem) are smaller. The small white flowers, which are less than 0.5 cm in diameter, have 4 petals and develops into a siliqua (a seed capsule or pod) that contains 20-30 small plump tan brown seeds, each 0.5 mm or less in diameter. A. thaliana originated in Europe and central, southwest Asia, and northern Africa, but has been introduced and naturalized throughout the U.S. and Canada, and has been introduced in nearly worldwide. Like many species in the Brassicaceae, A. thaliana are edible by humans, and can be used similarly to other mustard greens, in salads or sautéed, but its use as an edible spring green is not widely noted. It is generally considered a weed, due to its widespread distribution in agricultural fields, roadside, and disturbed lands. The large amount of research and genome information on A. thaliana is compiled in online sources including The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) (http://www.arabidopsis.org/), Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center, (ABRC) based at Ohio State University (http://abrc.osu.edu/), and Nottingham [European] Arabidopsis Stock Centre (http://arabidopsis.info/)). (FNA 2012, NSF 2012, Wikipedia 2012.)

Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Temperate Eurasia, Africa.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Distribution: Mediterranean region, Europe and Temp. Asia.; introduced else-where.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan; Africa, SW Asia, Europe, North America].

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    I have not seen any authentic specimen of this species from Baluchistan. Some forms of Arabidopsis pumila superficially look very much like this species in the absence of flowers, and Hotson's gathering from Makran (cited as Arabidopsis thaliana by Blatter et al in Journ. Ind. Bot. 1: 57. 1919) is most probably a misidentification of Arabidopsis pumila. It is a very variable species in size and some forms are without cauline leaves.
    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely used flowering plant as a model organism for studies in genetics, development, physiology, biochemistry, and related fields. It is also a naturalized weed throughout much of the world.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Annual, 5-20 (-45) cm tall, erect, simple or branched, usually from the base, often hairy below and suhglabrous above with short, branched or simple hairs. Basal leaves rosulate, obovate-oblong, 15-50 mm long, 5-10 mm broad, subsessile, slightly to distinctly toothed or entire; upper leaves, short, distant, oblong or linear, cuneate below. sessile. entire or obscurely toothed. Racemes (8-) 15-30 (-40)-flowered, up to 20 cm long in fruit. Flowers 2-3 mm across, white or pale pinkish; pedicels (5-) 8-15 mm long in fruit, filiform, subspreading or ascending. Sepals 1.5-2 mm long. Petals 3-4 mm long, 1 mm broad. Stamens 6 or 4, c. 1.5: 2.5 mm long (outer 2 sometimes suppressed) ; anthers c. 0.5 mm long. Siliquae (10-) 12-18 mm long, 1 mm broad, linear, subcylindrical, often somewhat upcurved, glabrous; valves 1-veined; stigma short, depressed, sub-sessile or on c. 0.5 mm long style; septum not veined; seeds usually 20-30 in each locule, c. 0.5 mm long.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Herbs annual, (2-)5-30(-50) cm tall. Stems erect, 1 or few from base, simple or branched above, basally with predominantly simple trichomes, apically glabrous. Basal leaves shortly petiolate; leaf blade obovate, spatulate, ovate, or elliptic, 0.8-3.5(-4.5) cm × (1-)2-10(-15) mm, adaxially with predominantly simple and stalked 1-forked trichomes, margin entire, repand, or dentate, apex obtuse. Cauline leaves subsessile, usually few; blade lanceolate, linear, oblong, or elliptic, (0.4-)0.6-1.8(-2.5) cm × 1-6(-10) mm, entire or rarely few toothed. Fruiting pedicels slender, divaricate, straight, 3-10(-15) mm. Sepals 1-2(-2.5) mm, glabrous or distally sparsely pubescent with simple trichomes, lateral pair not saccate. Petals white, spatulate, 2-3.5 × 0.5-1.5 mm, base attenuate to a short claw. Filaments white, 1.5-2 mm. Ovules 40-70 per ovary. Siliques linear, terete, smooth, (0.8-)1-1.5(-1.8) cm × 0.5-0.8 mm; valves with a distinct midvein; style to 0.5 mm. Seeds ellipsoid, plump, light brown, 0.3-0.5 mm; cotyledons incumbent. Fl. and fr. Jan-Jun(-Oct). 2n = 10*.
    Elevation Range
    provided by eFloras
    2300 m

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Arabis thaliana Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 665. 1753; Sisymbrium thalianum (Linnaeus) J. Gay & Monnard; Stenophragma thalianum (Linnaeus) Celakovsky.

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Plains, mountain slopes, river banks, roadsides; near sea level to 2000 m.

Cyclicity