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Both Brassica campestris and B. rapa were simultaneously described by Linnaeus (Sp. Pl. 2: 666. 1753). Johann Metzger (Systematische Beschreibung der kultivirten Kohlarten. 68 pp. Heidelberg. 1833), who was the first to unite the two species, adopted B. rapa for the combined species, and therefore this name has priority (St. Louis Code, Art. 11.5). Except for being an annual with nonfleshy taproots, B. campestris is absolutely indistinguishable from the biennial B. rapa with fleshy taproots. In fact, plants of B. rapa that escape from cultivation fail to produce fleshy roots. Therefore, B. campestris deserves no higher than a varietal rank of B. rapa, and it is here reduced to synonymy under var. oleifera.

Forms with 3- or 4-valved fruit have been recognized as Brassica trilocularis Roxburgh and B. quadrivalvis J. D. Hooker & Thomson, respectively. They were treated by Jafri (Fl. W. Pakistan 55: 24. 1973) as subspecies of B. napus, but both have 2n = 20, and therefore they should be recognized as a variety of B. rapa. Of the six varieties recognized in B. rapa, the following four are grown and naturalized in China.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 8: 19 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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29870
Description
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Herbs annual or biennial, 30-120(-190) cm tall, glabrous or sparsely pubescent basally, rarely glaucous, sometimes with fleshy taproots. Stems erect, simple or branched above. Basal and lowermost cauline leaves petiolate, not rosulate or obscurely to strongly rosulate and forming a compact, oblong head; petiole (1-)2-10(-17) cm, slender or thickened and fleshy, sometimes strongly winged; leaf blade ovate, oblong, or lanceolate in outline, (5-)10-40(-60) × 3-10(-20) cm, margin entire, repand, dentate, or sinuate, sometimes pinnatifid or pinnatisect and with a large terminal lobe and smaller, 1-6, oblong or ovate lateral lobes on each side of midvein. Upper cauline leaves sessile, ovate, oblong, or lanceolate, 2-8(-12) × 0.8-3 cm, base amplexicaul, deeply cordate, or auriculate, margin entire or repand. Fruiting pedicels, straight, ascending or divaricate, (0.5-)1-2.5(-3) cm. Sepals oblong, (3-)4-6.5(-8) × 1.5-2 mm, ascending. Petals bright yellow, rarely pale or whitish yellow, 7-10(-13) × (2.5-)3-6(-7) mm, obovate, apex rounded. Filaments 4-6(-7) mm; anthers oblong, 1.5-2 mm. Fruit linear, (2-)3-8(-11) cm × 2-4(-5) mm, terete, sessile, divaricate or ascending; valvular segment (1.3-)2-5(-7.5) cm, 8-15-seeded per locule, valves with a prominent midvein; terminal segment conical, (0.3-)1-2.5(-3.5) cm, seedless or rarely 1-seeded; style obsolete. Seeds dark or reddish brown, globose, 1-1.8 mm in diam., minutely reticulate. Fl. Mar-Jun, fr. Apr-Jul. 2n = 20*.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 8: 19 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras
ID
29869
Habitat & Distribution
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Cultivated. Throughout China [widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere].
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 8: 19 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras
ID
29871
Brief Summary
provided by EOL authors
Brassica rapa, field mustard, is an herbaceous annual or biennial species in the Brassicaceae (the cabbage or mustard family) from which various interrelated vegetable varieties have been developed, including turnips, bok choi, pak choi, tat soi (which are sometimes referred to as Chinese cabbages, or Chinese white- or Chinese flat cabbages, or celery mustard), pak choi sum (Chinese flowering cabbage), and napa cabbage (also called celery cabbage or pe tsai), among others. The species is thought to have originated in Europe, with many varieties developed in Asia, but its numerous varieties are now widely cultivated commercially and in home gardens in temperate and north temperate regions throughout the world. Some varieties have become naturalized and are considered weeds in regions of China and North America. B. rapa, formerly known as B. campestris, shows considerable variation in growth form and characteristics across the many cultivars, this species has, in general, a flat or globose root (in the case of turnips) without an elongated crown (as found in the rutabagas and kohlrabi, which are derived from B. olearacea), with stems that grow typically grow 30 to 120 cm (11.75 to 47.25 in), although in some cultivars up to 190 cm (75 in) tall. The leaves are large, soft, smooth or soft-hairy leaves, up to 50 cm (20 in) long, pinnatifid (deeply lobed) or lyrate (deeply lobed, but with an enlarged terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes), which clasp the stem and may form a more or less dense head. The yellow, four-parted and cross-shaped flowers are small, usually less than 2 cm (0.75 in) long, and produce siliques—capsular fruit that dehisces (splits open) when mature—that may be up to 6 cm (2.5 in) long. With a long history of cultivation and diversification into many varieties with numerous and overlapping common names, it can be difficult to ascertain and classify the relationships among species and varieties (or subspecies). Varieties of B. rapa are generally placed into 4 major categories: 1) var. chinensis, which includes pak choi, bok choi, and tat soi, cultivars that originated in southeast Asia and have long been cultivated in China and Japan, where they are also widely naturalized. These form compact clusters of stems that are not as densely packed as in cabbage heads. The whole young plants are used for their leafy greens and fleshy green or white stems, either salted and fermented into a pickle known as pak choi can, or cooked in soups, stir-fries, and noodle dishes. 2) var. parachinensis, Chinese flowering cabbage (sometimes called Chinese broccoli, although that name generally refers to the related B. olearacea var. alboglabra), which has elongated fleshy stems and flowering shoots that do not form into tight clusters or heads. The flowering stems, along with their leaves and buds, are pickled or prepared as a cooked vegetable in numerous Asian dishes. 3) var. pekinensis, napa or celery cabbage (sometimes known as Peking cabbage or pe tsai), which may either have a dense head of flat-stemmed leaves, or may form simply a loose cluster of fleshy stemmed leaves. These varieties have a long history of cultivation in China, Japan, and Korea, where they are used in salads, soups, and as a cooked vegetable. This variety is commonly used to make the traditional Korean fermented cabbage dish, kimchee. 4) var. rapa, turnips, which have a fleshy, globe-shaped root. Described in Roman accounts dating to 400 B.C., they are one of the oldest cultivated root crops, and are still widely used in Europe, prepared raw or cooked in soups, stews, and sautés. The young leaves are also used as cooked greens. (Bailey et al. 1976, Flora of China 2012, Hedrick 1919, van Wyk 2005.)
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Jacqueline Courteau
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Brassica rapa
provided by wikipedia EN

Brassica rapa is a plant consisting of various widely cultivated subspecies including the turnip (a root vegetable); napa cabbage, bomdong, bok choy, and cime di rapa (leaf vegetables); and Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera, an oilseed which has many common names, including turnip rape, field mustard, bird rape, and keblock.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

The oil made from the seed is sometimes also called canola or colza,[1] which is one reason why it is sometimes confused with rapeseed oil, but this comes from a different Brassica species (Brassica napus). The oilseeds known as canola are sometimes particular varieties of Brassica rapa (termed Polish Canola) but usually the related species Brassica napus (rapeseed) and Brassica juncea (mustard greens and mizuna).[7]

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin–Madison have selectively bred one subspecies of B. rapa to have an extremely short life cycle for use as a model organism in education and experiment. This variety is known by the trademarked name "Wisconsin Fast Plants."[8]

History

In the 18th century the turnip and the oilseed-producing variants were seen as being different species by Carl Linnaeus who named them B. rapa and B. campestris. 20th-century taxonomists found that the plants were cross fertile and thus belonged to the same species. Since the turnip had been named first by Linnaeus, the name Brassica rapa was adopted.[9]

Many butterflies, including the small white, pollinate the B. rapa flowers.

Cultivars

Cultivar Image Name Bok choy Baby Pak Choi (01).JPG Brassica rapa subsp. Bomdong Bomdong cabbage.jpg Brassica rapa var. glabra Choy sum Choi Sum stalks.JPG Brassica rapa subsp. parachinensis Field Mustard Brassica rapa ja02.jpg Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera Komatsuna Komatsuna.jpg Brassica rapa subsp. perviridis Napa cabbage Čínské zelí.jpg Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis Rapini Rapini.jpg Brassica rapa var. rapifera Tatsoi Tatsoi.jpg Brassica rapa subsp. narinosa Turnip Turnip 2622027.jpg Brassica rapa subsp. rapa Yellow Sarson Sarsoon Ka Saag Fresh.JPG Brassica rapa subsp. trilocularis

References

  1. ^ a b "Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 13 April 2013..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ "Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera". Turnip Rape. EOL. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
  3. ^ Clive Stace (1997). New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-58935-2.
  4. ^ Bailey's Dictionary (5th reprint ed.). 1731.
  5. ^ Doreathea Hurst (1889). History and Antiquities Of Horsham. Farncombe & Co.
  6. ^ "Brassica rapa". Bioimages. cas.vanderbilt.edu. 2011. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  7. ^ "Chapter 2 – Canola Varieties". Canola Grower's Manual. Canada Council of Canada. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  8. ^ "Wisconsin Fast Plants of the University of Wisconsin: Homepage". Wisconsin Fast Plants®. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
  9. ^ Phil Thomas, ed. (2003). "Canola Varieties". Canola Growers Manual. Canola Council of Canada. Archived from the original on 12 July 2009.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN
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8ef1c913923d1ba3d2df989aa33e66e3
Brassica rapa: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

Brassica rapa is a plant consisting of various widely cultivated subspecies including the turnip (a root vegetable); napa cabbage, bomdong, bok choy, and cime di rapa (leaf vegetables); and Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera, an oilseed which has many common names, including turnip rape, field mustard, bird rape, and keblock.

The oil made from the seed is sometimes also called canola or colza, which is one reason why it is sometimes confused with rapeseed oil, but this comes from a different Brassica species (Brassica napus). The oilseeds known as canola are sometimes particular varieties of Brassica rapa (termed Polish Canola) but usually the related species Brassica napus (rapeseed) and Brassica juncea (mustard greens and mizuna).

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin–Madison have selectively bred one subspecies of B. rapa to have an extremely short life cycle for use as a model organism in education and experiment. This variety is known by the trademarked name "Wisconsin Fast Plants."

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364a8f0696ef5a9472b6cb7f271a4759