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Annual Honesty

Lunaria annua L.

Brief Summary

    Lunaria annua: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

     src= Ripe pods, some with seeds visible

    Lunaria annua, called honesty or annual honesty in English, is a species of flowering plant native to the Balkans and south west Asia, and naturalized throughout the temperate world.

Comprehensive Description

    Lunaria annua
    provided by wikipedia

     src=
    Ripe pods, some with seeds visible

    Lunaria annua, called honesty or annual honesty in English, is a species of flowering plant native to the Balkans and south west Asia, and naturalized throughout the temperate world.

    Description

    It is an annual or biennial growing to 90 cm (35 in) tall by 30 cm (12 in) broad, with large, coarse, pointed oval leaves with marked serrations. The leaves are hairy, the lower ones long-stalked, the upper ones stalkless.[1] In spring and summer it bears terminal racemes of white or violet flowers, followed by showy, light brown, translucent, disc-shaped[1] seedpods (silicles) the skin of which falls off to release the seeds, revealing a central membrane which is white with a silvery sheen, 3–8 cm (1–3 in) in diameter; they persist on the plant through winter.[2] These pods are much used in floral arrangements.

    Etymology

    The Latin name lunaria means "moon-shaped" and refers to the shape and appearance of the seedpods.[3] The common name "honesty" arose in the 16th century, and may also relate to the translucence of the seedpods. In South East Asia, it is called the "money plant" and in the United States it is commonly known as "silver dollars", "Chinese money", or "Chinese coins" because its seedpods have the appearance of silvery coins. For the same reason, in French it is known as monnaie du pape ("the Pope's money"). In Denmark it is known as judaspenge and in Dutch-speaking countries as judaspenning (both meaning "coins of Judas"), an allusion to the story of Judas Iscariot and the thirty pieces of silver he was paid for betraying Christ.

    Cultivation

    This plant is easy to grow from seed and tends to naturalize. It is usually grown as a biennial, being sown one year to flower the next. It is suitable for cultivation in a shady or dappled area, or in a wildflower garden, and the flowers and dried seedpods are often seen in flower arrangements.[3] Numerous varieties and cultivars are available, of which the white-flowered L. annua var. albiflora[4] and the variegated white L. alba var. albiflora 'Alba Variegata'[5] have won the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[6]

    See also

    Gallery

    •  src=

      Unripe seedpod in July

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      Detail of flower

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      White-flowered form

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      Storage roots at the end of first growth period

    References

    1. ^ a b Parnell, J. and Curtis, T. 2012 Webb's An Irish Flora. Cork University Press .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 978-185918-4783
    2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
    3. ^ a b Coombes, Allen J. (2012). The A to Z of plant names. USA: Timber Press. p. 312. ISBN 9781604691962.
    4. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Lunaria annua var. albiflora". Retrieved 22 May 2013.
    5. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Lunaria alba var. albiflora 'Alba Variegata'". Retrieved 25 March 2018.
    6. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 62. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
    7. ^ "Money Plant (Lunaria annua)". www.illinoiswildflowers.info.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Distribution: A native of S.E. Europe, introduced elsewhere.

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Infructescence with persistent silvery septa are used for interior decoration.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Annual or biennial, 30-100 cm tall, erect, branched, ± hairy with simple hairs. Lower leaves long-stalked; stalk up to 8 cm long; blade broadly cordate, acuminate, coarsely toothed, up to 16 cm long, 9 cm broad; upper leaves shortly stalked to subsessile; all leaves roughly hairy with simple appressed hairs. Racemes 10-20-flowered, lax, ebracteate, up to 20 cm long in fruit. Flowers c. 3 cm across, purple, violet, pink or white; pedicels up to 15 mm long in fruit, spreading. Sepals 8-12 mm long, 2.5-3 mm broad. Petals 25-30 mm long, 8-10 mm broad, obovate, long clawed, conspicuously veined. Stamens 8-10: 10-15 mm long; anthers 2.5-3 mm long. Siliculae elliptic-oblong to almost orbicular, rounded at both ends, 30-45 mm long, 20-25 mm borad; septum broad, membranous, not veined ; seeds few, 5-8 mm in diam., winged uniformly (wing c. 1 mm broad).