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Brief Summary

    Vaccinium uliginosum: Brief Summary
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    Vaccinium uliginosum (bog bilberry, bog blueberry, northern bilberry or western blueberry) is a Eurasian and North American flowering plant in the genus Vaccinium within the heath family.

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Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution
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    More info for the term: bog

    Bog blueberry is distributed throughout Alaska, Canada, and Greenland.
    It occurs south through New England, the northern portions of the Great
    Lakes States, and western Washington and Oregon [1,34,72,75,87].  Bog
    blueberry is also found in Japan, other parts of Asia, and in Europe
    [34,38,87].
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    VACULI_GENERAL_DISTRIBUTION
    Distribution
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    N Heilongjiang (Da Hinggan Ling), S Jilin (Changbai Shan), NE Nei Mongol (Da Hinggan Ling) [Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russia; Europe, North America].
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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    Flora of China Vol. 14: 502 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Occurrence in North America
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         AK  CA  ME  MI  MN  NH  NY  OR  VT  WA
         WI  AB  BC  LB  MB  NB  NF  NT  NS  ON
         PE  PQ  SK  YT
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    VACULI_STATES
    Regional Distribution in the Western United States
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    This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

       1  Northern Pacific Border
       2  Cascade Mountains
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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Morphology

    Comments
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    The berry is nutritious and has a sweetish taste.
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    Flora of China Vol. 14: 502 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Description
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: bog, fruit, rhizome, shrub

    Bog blueberry is a low, highly branched, deciduous shrub.  It is
    prostrate to erect in form and generally reaches 8 to 16 inches (20-40
    cm) in height.  The leaves are oval and leathery, and twigs are slender.
    Older twigs have gray, shreddy bark.  The flowers are white to pink and
    are borne singly or in clusters at the ends of stems.  The fruit is a
    blue to black berry [1,75,87].  Bog blueberry can form dense mats or
    open extensive colonies [81].

    Bog blueberry roots in the organic layer and is rhizomatous.  Rhizome
    depth ranges from superficial to 6 to 8 inches (15-20 cm) below the
    surface [56].  Mycorrhizal associations exist on bog blueberry roots
    that allow for increased plant nitrogen levels [28,48,78].  Bog
    blueberry has a relatively high ratio of root biomass to shoot biomass
    [32,69].  These adaptations are important for nutrient uptake in the
    cold, poorly aerated, nitrogen-poor soils characteristic of bog
    blueberry sites [10,32].
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Shrubs deciduous, 0.5–1 m tall, alpine populations usually 10–15 cm tall, much branched, rhizomatous. Twigs terete, puberulous to glabrous. Leaves scattered; petiole ca. 2 mm, puberulous; leaf blade obovate or elliptic to oblong, 1–3 × 0.6–1.5 cm, papery, abaxially glaucous, puberulous, adaxially subglabrous, secondary veins 3–5 pairs, fine veins evident especially abaxially, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, margin plane, entire, with 1 basal gland per side, apex rounded, sometimes retuse. Inflorescences fasciculate, at end of shoot, 1–3-flowered; bracts caducous, 1.5–2.5 mm. Pedicel ca. 5 mm, glabrous. Flowers 4- or 5-merous. Hypanthium ca. 0.8 mm, glabrous; calyx lobes 4 or 5, triangular-ovate, ca. 1 mm. Corolla greenish white, broadly urceolate, ca. 5 mm, glabrous; lobes triangular, ca. 1 mm. Filaments ca. 1 mm, glabrous; anthers ca. 1.5 mm, thecae with 2 spurs, tubules slightly shorter than thecae. Berry 4- or 5-loculed, bluish purple, subglobose or ellipsoidal, with a bloom, ca. 1 cm in diam. Fl. Jun, fr. Jul–Aug. 2n = 24, 48.
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    Flora of China Vol. 14: 502 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat

    Habitat
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    Larix forests, forest margins, meadow-moors, alpine steppes; 900–2300 m.
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 14: 502 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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    198628
    Habitat characteristics
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: bog, shrub, tundra, tussock

    Bog blueberry occupies sites ranging from sea level to alpine zones
    [71].  It occurs in organic or inorganic soils that are generally acidic
    (pH 3.5 to 6.2) [81].  Bog blueberry can tolerate a wide range of soil
    moisture conditions and is found on well-drained to poorly drained
    sites.  Bog blueberry is found in sites characteristic of cool-temperate
    to cool-mesothermal climates [47].

    Bog blueberry occurs in a wide variety of habitats, such as coastal and
    interior bogs [2,6,49,51]; cottongrass tussock tundra [5,6]; low shrub
    tundra [2,5,9]; sedge meadows [6,39,46]; black or white spruce woodlands
    [2,5,81]; forested areas [71,87]; rocky or sandy shores of lakes and
    streams [8,11,42]; rock outcrops [12,72]; and barrens [23,72].
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    VACULI_SITE_CHARACTERISTICS
    Habitat: Cover Types
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    This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

         1  Jack pine
         5  Balsam fir
        12  Black spruce
        13  Black spruce - tamarack
        38  Tamarack
       107  White spruce
       201  White spruce
       202  White spruce - paper birch
       204  Black spruce
       205  Mountain hemlock
       206  Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir
       218  Lodgepole pine
       224  Western hemlock
       225  Western hemlock - Sitka spruce
       227  Western redcedar - western hemlock
       228  Western redcedar
       251  White spruce - aspen
       253  Black spruce - white spruce
       254  Black spruce - paper birch
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    VACULI_SAF_COVER_TYPES
    Habitat: Ecosystem
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    This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

       FRES10  White - red - jack pine
       FRES11  Spruce - fir
       FRES23  Fir - spruce
       FRES24  Hemlock - Sitka spruce
       FRES26  Lodgepole pine
       FRES44  Alpine
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Habitat: Plant Associations
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    This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

    More info for the terms: bog, forest

       K001  Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest
       K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest
       K004  Fir - hemlock forest
       K008  Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest
       K015  Western spruce - fir forest
       K093  Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
       K094  Conifer bog
       K095  Great Lakes pine forest
       K096  Northeastern spruce - fir forest
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Key Plant Community Associations
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    More info for the terms: bog, codominant, forest, fruit, lichens, peatland, shrub, tree, tundra

    Bog blueberry can occur as a dominant or codominant in a variety of
    habitats within its range.  It may occur as an understory component in
    open or closed forest habitats, primarily with black or white spruce
    (Picea mariana; P. glauca) [25,65,76,85,70].  Bog blueberry can also
    dominate or codominate in dwarf shrub types, bogs or muskegs, and on
    open tundra [27,43,86].

    Other associated tree species include:  Alaska-cedar (Chamaecyparis
    nootkatensis), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), balsam poplar (P.
    balsamifera), and paper birch (Betula papyrifera).

    Associated understory species include:  willows (Salix spp.), alders
    (Alnus spp.), bog birch (Betula glandulosa), dwarf arctic birch (B.
    nana), Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum and L. palustre), lignonberry
    (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), bunchberry dogwood (Cornus canadensis),
    rustyleaf menziesia (Menziesia ferruginea), crowberry (Empetrum nigrum),
    red fruit bearberry (Arctostaphylos rubra), leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne
    calyculata), bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), cloudberry (Rubus
    chamaemorus), bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia), salal (Gaultheria
    shallon), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), Labrador lousewort
    (Pedicularis labradorica), entire leaf mountain avens (Dryas
    integrifolia), Mt. Washington mountain avens (D. octopetala), bluejoint
    reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis), altai fescue (Festuca altaica),
    cottonsedge (Eriophorum vaginatum and E. angustifolium), and various
    sedges (Carex spp.), feathermosses (Hylocomium, Pleurozium, and
    Stereocaulon spp.), clubmosses (Lycopodium spp.), sphagnum mosses
    (Sphagnum spp.), and lichens (Cladonia and Cladina spp.).

    Published classifications listing bog blueberry as a major component of
    plant associations (pas), community types (cts), or vegetation types
    (vts) are as follows:

       AREA                  CLASSIFICATION            AUTHORITY
     
    interior AK            postfire forest cts       Foote 1983
    nw AK                         cts                Hanson 1953
    AK                       gen. veg. pas           Viereck & Dyrness 1980
    AK: Seward Peninsula          cts                Kelso 1989
    YT                            vts                Stanek and others 1981
    OR: Willamette NF        gen. veg. pas           Hemstrom and others 1987
    Newfoundland              peatland pas           Pollett 1972
    N.W.T.                        cts                Black & Bliss 1978
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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General Ecology

    Fire Ecology
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    More info for the terms: bog, fire regime, severity

    Bog blueberry sprouts from rhizomes or rootstocks following fire
    [53,64,82].  It roots in the organic layer and therefore only survives
    in patches where the organic layer is not consumed [9].  Fire destroys
    the seeds, so bog blueberry must invade burned areas from off-site
    sources [64].  Wildfires that occur in the wet sites that bog blueberry
    often occupies are generally low in severity.

    FIRE REGIMES :
    Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
    species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
    "Find FIRE REGIMES".
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Fire Management Considerations
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    More info for the terms: bog, fruit, severity

    Flower buds tend to be more numerous on new shoots, and periodic removal
    of old shoots may increase flower production in many species of
    Vaccinium [58].  Berry production, however, may be delayed for a few
    years.  Ground fires of moderate severity favor growth and development
    of bog blueberry, and prescribed burning is the recommended management
    tool to increase berry yield [62].  Burning should take place in late
    fall or early spring before growth resumes [74].

    In Russia, low- to moderate-severity ground fires caused 2.2 to 3.1 fold
    increases in the number of bog blueberry shoots per unit area.  Annual
    growth increments also increased, and were nearly two times greater in
    plants on burned areas than in plants on unburned areas.  Fruit
    production resumed 3 years after fire, and berries in burned areas were
    larger and healthier (more resistant to damage) than berries in other
    areas.  Yield in burned areas was also greater than in adjacent unburned
    sites [62].
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
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    More info on this topic.

    More info for the term: phanerophyte

       Phanerophyte
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Immediate Effect of Fire
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    More info for the term: bog

    Fire generally top-kills bog blueberry.  Moderate- to high-severity
    fires may also kill underground vegetative structures.
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Life Form
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    More info for the term: shrub

    Shrub
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Plant Response to Fire
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    More info for the terms: bog, cover, frequency, tundra, tussock

    Bog blueberry sprouts from surviving rhizomes or rootstocks after low to
    moderate-severity fires.  Burned aerial stems may also sprout [64,88].
    Bog blueberry grows rapidly for the first 50 to 60 years after fire [9],
    and reaches its highest postfire cover and frequency 50 to 120 years
    after burning [4].  Bog blueberry leaves are larger in burned areas,
    even after 5 years [89].

    Dyrness [17] found that bog blueberry in black spruce stands increased
    in biomass production after light summer fires.  The increase in biomass
    production corresponded to an increase in nutrient uptake.  Nutrient
    levels (percent dry weight) in lightly burned versus unburned areas were
    as follows:

                         N          P         K          Ca        Mg
                       ________________________________________________
    unburned            .613       .074      .192       .172      .056
    lightly burned      1.85       .324      .966       .394      .130

    In the 4 years following the Wickersham Dome Fire near Fairbanks,
    Alaska, bog blueberry in black spruce stands increased in percent cover
    and biomass production, but did not reach control levels.  Recovery in
    lightly burned stands was much greater than in heavily burned stands
    [86].

    Biomass production in bog blueberry decreased following a summer fire in
    tussock tundra near Fairbanks, Alaska.  Production in burned areas was
    significantly lower (P less than .05) than in adjacent unburned areas 13 years
    after the fire [24].
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    VACULI_PLANT_RESPONSE_TO_FIRE
    Post-fire Regeneration
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    More info for the terms: caudex, root crown, seed

       survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex
       survivor species; on-site surviving rhizomes
       off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Regeneration Processes
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    More info for the terms: bog, layering, seed, stratification

    Bog blueberry is capable of vegetative and sexual reproduction.  It
    regenerates vegetatively by layering or sprouting from rhizomes.

    Seeds of most Vacciniums are not dormant and require no pretreatment for
    germination [13].  In one study, however, bog blueberry seeds exhibited
    shallow dormancy, and a 30-day cold stratification at 35 degrees
    Fahrenheit (2 deg C) increased germination success.  Very few stratified
    or unstratified seeds germinated at temperatures below 59 degrees
    Fahrenheit (15 deg C) [7].  Seed viability of most Vacciniums is of
    short duration [85].

    Seeds are readily dispersed by the birds and animals that eat bog
    blueberry fruits [63].  Bog blueberry seedlings can colonize exposed
    mineral soil [59], but seedlings are rare in established adult
    populations [21].
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Successional Status
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    More info for the terms: bog, climax, cover, forest, frequency, shrub, succession, tundra, woodland

    Bog blueberry remains an important component of forest and woodland
    understory through the early, mid-seral, and late stages of succession
    [9,19].  It is important in the early shrub stages of tundra succession,
    as well as in climax stages [83].  Bog blueberry can also be found in
    dense, mature-climax forest stands [16,25].

    Bog blueberry can sprout from underground plant parts following fire and
    remains important throughout successional stages.  The following cover
    and frequency percentages were found in black spruce stands in interior
    Alaska [25]:

      Stage              Years after fire    Frequency(%)    Cover(%)
    ___________________________________________________________________
    Newly burned             0 - 1              38.0      less than 0.5
    Moss-herb                1 - 5              62.0           3.0
    Tall shrub-sapling       5 - 30             40.0           5.0
    Dense tree              30 - 55             65.0           8.0
    Mixed hardwood-spruce   55 - 90             59.0           5.0
    Spruce                  90 - 200+           42.0           2.0
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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Cyclicity

    Phenology
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    Bog blueberry flowers from June to early July.  Fruits ripen from late
    July through September [23,42,75].
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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Management

    Management considerations
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    More info for the terms: bog, cover, frequency, hardwood, peat, rhizome, seed, softwood

    Leaf production of bog blueberry increased in response to overgrazing by
    caribou in arctic Canada.  Average cover was 9 percent in overgrazed
    areas but only 2 percent in areas that were not overgrazed [31].

    In one study, bog blueberry showed no significant response to
    fertilization or irrigation [40].

    White spruce stands on Willow Island, Alaska were subjected to clearcut
    and shelterwood treatments.  Second year average percent cover and
    average percent frequency of bog blueberry in the stands were as follows
    [18]:

                  Control   Clearcut   Shelterwood, 46 ft.  Shelterwood, 30 ft.
                                         (14 m) spacing       (9 m) spacing
                  _____________________________________________________________
    Cover           0.3        0.1            +                   0.5
    Frequency       6.0        7.0           3.0                 13.0


    Vegetative propagation of bog blueberry has been more successful with
    root or rhizome cuttings than with stem cuttings.  Rooting percentages
    from both hardwood and softwood stem cuttings were poor, whereas 52
    percent of rhizome cuttings produced shoots when planted immediately
    after collection [36].

    Blueberries can also be grown from seed.  In general, the seeds should
    be planted in a mixture of sand and peat.  Seedlings grown in the
    greenhouse can be transplanted 6 to 7 weeks after emergence but should
    not be transferred to the field until after the first growing season.
    Blueberries are exacting in their site requirements and are difficult to
    establish on sites that do not meet their specific needs.  Naturally
    occurring stands can usually be managed successfully [13].
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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Benefits

    Cover Value
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    Bog blueberry presumably provides cover for a variety of small wildlife
    species.  It often forms a dense understory layer that may serve as
    hiding or resting sites for birds or small mammals.
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
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    More info for the terms: bog, lichens, litter

    Bog blueberry is consumed by many species of wildlife.  Many songbirds
    and game birds including ptarmigan and spruce grouse eat the berries,
    often before they are ripe [57,80].  Bog blueberry leaves are important
    in the diet of spruce grouse throughout the spring, summer, and fall
    [20].  Many small mammals including chipmunks, squirrels, mice, and
    rabbits also consume bog blueberry leaves or fruits.  Consumption of
    leaves by snowshoe hares is highest in the spring [91].  Ninety-two
    percent of the red-backed vole's fall diet consists of berries, many of
    which are bog blueberries [90].

    Caribou and moose browse on bog blueberry.  In northwestern Manitoba,
    occurrence of leaves and twigs in caribou rumen samples was 75 percent
    in April and 81 percent in November [61].  Bog blueberry was also
    detected in samples in the winter months but may have been consumed as
    litter as the caribou browsed on lichens [73].  Moose lightly browse bog
    blueberry throughout the year [52].

    When available, bog blueberries are one of the most important fruits
    consumed by black bear in interior Alaska.  The berries are utilized
    heavily from July to September [29].  Black bear browse on bog blueberry
    leaves in the spring [55].  Brown bear are also known to eat bog
    blueberries [60].
       
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Nutritional Value
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    The nutritional value of bog blueberry is not well documented.  However,
    Vaccinium species in general have sweet berries that contain high
    concentrations of mono- and disaccharides [77].  They are rich in
    vitamin C, high in energy content, and low in fat [68].
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Other uses and values
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    More info for the terms: bog, fresh, fruit

    Bog blueberries are edible and have good flavor [37].  The berries are
    often picked in large quantities [1,87] and used in jams, jellies, and
    pies [37,38].  They are the most popular fruit of Native Americans in
    the Fort Yukon region [35].  Fresh or dried leaves can be used for tea
    [71].  Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) leaves, flowers, and rhizomes have
    been used for medicinal purposes [81].

    Bog blueberry has no economic importance [8], but its cold hardiness
    (including late flowering) and resistance to the blueberry fungus
    Fusicoccum putrefaciens make it useful for hybridizing with more
    economically important species [33,81].

    A high correlation exists between concentrations of uranium, copper, and
    lead in bog blueberry leaf tissues and levels of these metals in the
    surrounding soil.  The ability of bog blueberry to reflect heavy metal
    concentrations in till favors its use as a tool in mineral exploration.
    The advantages and disadvantages of using bog blueberry for
    biogeochemical prospecting have been considered [15].
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Palatability
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    Palatability of Vaccinium species as browse is rated as fair to moderate
    [14].
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites
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    More info for the terms: bog, reclamation, seed, tundra

    Bog blueberry has been successful at naturally colonizing local seismic
    lines in the subarctic [44].  It has also naturally colonized borrow
    pits in tundra regions of northwestern Canada and may be of use in
    managed reclamation projects [45].

    Bog blueberry is tolerant of high concentrations of heavy metals in the
    soil.  Leaf tissues can accumulate uranium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel,
    and iron in large quantities with no apparent detrimental effects to the
    plant [15].  The ability to inhabit soils with high concentrations of
    these metals may favor the use of bog blueberry in certain revegetation
    programs.

    Bog blueberry could not be established from seed during the first
    growing season in simulated pipeline trenches near Fort Norman,
    Northwest Territories.  Bog blueberry has, however, successfully
    germinated after one or two growing seasons when planted in other areas
    [59].
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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Taxonomy

    Common Names
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    More info for the term: bog

    bog blueberry
    bog bilberry
    alpine blueberry
    alpine bilberry
    bog huckleberry
    bog whortleberry
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Synonyms
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    Vaccinium occidentale A. Gray
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Taxonomy
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    More info for the term: bog

    The currently accepted scientific name of bog blueberry is Vaccinium
    uliginosum Linnaeus [1,34,37,41,72]. It has been placed within the
    section Vaccinium of the taxonomically complex genus Vaccinium [81].
    Recognized subspecies and varieties based on morphological
    characteristics or distribution are as follows:

    Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. alpinum (Bigel.) Hulten [37,87]
    Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. microphyllum Lange [37,41,81]
    Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. pubescens (Wormsk. ex Hornem.) Young [41,75,81]
    Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. occidentale (Gray) Hulten [41,81]
    Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. pedris (Harshberger) Young [41,81]
    Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides (Bigel.) Young [81]
    Vaccinium uliginosum var. alpinum Bigel. [23,37,72,75,87]
    Vaccinium uliginosum var. salicinum (Cham.) Hulten [37,81]
    Vaccinium uliginosum var. uliginosum Linnaeus [1,34,37,41,72]
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    Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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