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Brief Summary

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL staff

    Mangifera indica is among the most economically and culturally important tropical fruits, especially in Asia. It was originally found in the foothills of the Himalayas in northeastern India, Burma, and Bangladesh and domesticated thousands of years ago (possibly independently in Southeast Asia). It is now grown in most tropical countries and some subtropical ones (it is grown as far north as 35° to 37° N in southern Spain). Many cultivars in India have been vegetatively propagated for hundreds of years. Early on, hundreds of years ago, mango was brought to Malaysia and other East Asian countries, then to East and West Africa, and finally to the New World. The Portugese introduced the mango to Brazil from their colonies in Mozambique and Angola and mangos were introduced to Mexico and Panama via the Philippines. Mangos were introduced to the West Indies in the mid-to late 1700s, probably via Brazil. In the tropics, mangos grow at elevations up to 1200 m. The trees may reach 40 m or more in height and live for several hundred years. They bear rosettes of evergreen leaves (red or yellow at first) and dense panicles up to 30 cm long of small (5 to 10 mm) reddish or yellowish flowers. The fruits, which range from 2.5 cm to more than 30 cm in length, depending on the cultivar, vary in shape (from round to oval, egg-shaped, or kidney-shaped) and color (green, yellow, red, purple) with a dotted skin. (Vaughan and Geissler 1997; Bompard 2009 and references therein; Mukherjee and Litz 2009 and references therein) A single mature mango tree can produce 2000 to 2500 ripe fruits (Jiron and Headström 1985).

    India has long been a major mango producer, but as of 2009 China had risen to become the world's second largest mango producer, with India's production representing less than half the world total. Fresh mangos are now available in stores year-round in North America, Europe, and Japan. (Litz 2009) According to Evans and Mendoza (2009), the majority of the mangos imported by North America come from Mexico, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Haiti. India and Pakistan are the main suppliers of western Asia. Southeast Asia is supplied mainly by the Philippines and Thailand. Europe imports mangos mainly from South America and Asia. India and Mexico each account for roughly a fifth to a quarter of world mango exports. World mango imports more than doubled between 1996 and 2005, with the United States accounting for a third of all mango imports.

    The peel of the fruit and other parts of the mango can cause contact dermatitis in some people, as is the case for many species in the plant family Anacardiaceae.

    The many contributors to Litz (2009) provide a comprehensive overview of mango biology and cultivation.

    Mangifera indica: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Mangifera indica, commonly known as mango, is a species of flowering plant in the sumac and poison ivy family Anacardiaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent where it is indigenous. Hundreds of cultivated varieties have been introduced to other warm regions of the world. It is a large fruit-tree, capable of a growing to a height and crown width of about 100 feet and trunk circumference of more than twelve feet.

    The species domestication is attributed to India around 2000 BCE. Mango was brought to East Asia around 400-500 BCE, in the 15th century to the Philippines, and in the 16th century to Africa and Brazil by Portuguese explorers. The species was assessed and first named in botanical nomenclature by Linnaeus in 1753. Mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan and the Philippines.

     src= Creole mangos from Oaxaca, México
    Morphological Characterization, Quality, Yield and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Alphonso Mango (Mangifera indica L.)
    provided by EOL authors

    Abstract:

    Alphonso is the most delicious variety of mango (Mangifera indica L.) known for its excellent texture, taste, and richness with vitamins and minerals. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on morphological characteristics, quality, yield and molecular assessment of mango. A plot of 16 acres lands used for this study with already grown mango trees. This plot was divided into two parts. One part was considered as control, while another part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment without physically touching and referred as treated. The treated mango trees showed new straight leaves, without any distortion and infection, whereas the control trees showed very few, distorted, infected, and curly leaves. Moreover, the flowering pattern of control trees did not alter; it was on average 8 to 10 inches with more male flowers. However, the flowering pattern of treated trees was completely transformed into compact one being 4 to 5 inches in length and having more female flowers. Additionally, the weight of matured ripened mango was found on an average 275 gm, medium sized with 50% lesser pulp in the control fruits, while the fruits of biofield energy treated trees showed on average weight of 400 gm, large sized and having 75% higher pulp as compared to the control. Apart from morphology, the quality and nutritional components of mango fruits such as acidity content was increased by 65.63% in the treated sample. Vitamin C content in the treated Alphonso mango pulp was 43.75% higher than the pulp obtained from the control mango farm. The spongy tissue content in pulp of the matured ripened mangoes was decreased by 100% for two consecutive years as compared to the control. Moreover, the yield of flowers and fruits in the treated trees were increased about 95.45 and 47.37%, respectively as compared to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample did not show any true polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on the mango trees showed a significant improvement in the morphology, quality and overall productivity along with 100% reduction in the spongy tissue disorder. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of quality mangoes.

    Morphological Characterization, Quality, Yield and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Alphonso Mango (Mangifera indica L.)
    provided by EOL authors
    Alphonso is the most delicious variety of mango (Mangifera indica L.) known for its excellent texture, taste, and richness with vitamins and minerals. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on morphological characteristics, quality, yield and molecular assessment of mango. A plot of 16 acres lands used for this study with already grown mango trees. This plot was divided into two parts. One part was considered as control, while another part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment without physically touching and referred as treated. The treated mango trees showed new straight leaves, without any distortion and infection, whereas the control trees showed very few, distorted, infected, and curly leaves. Moreover, the flowering pattern of control trees did not alter; it was on average 8 to 10 inches with more male flowers. However, the flowering pattern of treated trees was completely transformed into compact one being 4 to 5 inches in length and having more female flowers. Additionally, the weight of matured ripened mango was found on an average 275 gm, medium sized with 50% lesser pulp in the control fruits, while the fruits of biofield energy treated trees showed on average weight of 400 gm, large sized and having 75% higher pulp as compared to the control. Apart from morphology, the quality and nutritional components of mango fruits such as acidity content was increased by 65.63% in the treated sample. Vitamin C content in the treated Alphonso mango pulp was 43.75% higher than the pulp obtained from the control mango farm. The spongy tissue content in pulp of the matured ripened mangoes was decreased by 100% for two consecutive years as compared to the control. Moreover, the yield of flowers and fruits in the treated trees were increased about 95.45 and 47.37%, respectively as compared to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample did not show any true polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on the mango trees showed a significant improvement in the morphology, quality and overall productivity along with 100% reduction in the spongy tissue disorder. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of quality mangoes.
    Morphological Characterization, Quality, Yield and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Alphonso Mango (Mangifera indica L.)
    provided by EOL authors
    Alphonso is the most delicious variety of mango (Mangifera indica L.) known for its excellent texture, taste, and richness with vitamins and minerals. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on morphological characteristics, quality, yield and molecular assessment of mango. A plot of 16 acres lands used for this study with already grown mango trees. This plot was divided into two parts. One part was considered as control, while another part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment without physically touching and referred as treated. The treated mango trees showed new straight leaves, without any distortion and infection, whereas the control trees showed very few, distorted, infected, and curly leaves. Moreover, the flowering pattern of control trees did not alter; it was on average 8 to 10 inches with more male flowers. However, the flowering pattern of treated trees was completely transformed into compact one being 4 to 5 inches in length and having more female flowers. Additionally, the weight of matured ripened mango was found on an average 275 gm, medium sized with 50% lesser pulp in the control fruits, while the fruits of biofield energy treated trees showed on average weight of 400 gm, large sized and having 75% higher pulp as compared to the control. Apart from morphology, the quality and nutritional components of mango fruits such as acidity content was increased by 65.63% in the treated sample. Vitamin C content in the treated Alphonso mango pulp was 43.75% higher than the pulp obtained from the control mango farm. The spongy tissue content in pulp of the matured ripened mangoes was decreased by 100% for two consecutive years as compared to the control. Moreover, the yield of flowers and fruits in the treated trees were increased about 95.45 and 47.37%, respectively as compared to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample did not show any true polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on the mango trees showed a significant improvement in the morphology, quality and overall productivity along with 100% reduction in the spongy tissue disorder. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of quality mangoes.

Comprehensive Description

    Mangifera indica
    provided by wikipedia

    Mangifera indica, commonly known as mango, is a species of flowering plant in the sumac and poison ivy family Anacardiaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent where it is indigenous. Hundreds of cultivated varieties have been introduced to other warm regions of the world. It is a large fruit-tree, capable of a growing to a height and crown width of about 100 feet and trunk circumference of more than twelve feet.[2]

    The species domestication is attributed to India around 2000 BCE.[3] Mango was brought to East Asia around 400-500 BCE, in the 15th century to the Philippines, and in the 16th century to Africa and Brazil by Portuguese explorers.[4] The species was assessed and first named in botanical nomenclature by Linnaeus in 1753.[5] Mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan and the Philippines.

     src=
    Creole mangos from Oaxaca, México

    Chemical constituents

     src=
    Mango, in moist Brazilian tropics
     src=
    M. indica flowers in Sri Lanka

    Mangiferin (a pharmacologically active hydroxylated xanthone C-glycoside) is extracted from mango at high concentrations from the young leaves (172 g/kg), bark (107 g/kg), and from old leaves (94 g/kg).[6] Allergenic urushiols are present in the fruit peel and can trigger contact dermatitis in sensitised individuals. This reaction is more likely to occur in people who have been exposed to other plants from the Anacardiaceae family, such as poison oak and poison ivy, which are widespread in the United States.[7]

    Traditional medicine

    In Ayurveda, it is used in a Rasayana formula sometimes with other mild sours and shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia). In this oriental system of traditional medicine, varied properties are attributed to different parts of the mango tree, both as food and medicine.[1]

    Extracts of the bark, leaves, stems, and unripe fruits have demonstrated antibiotic properties in vitro, and are used in traditional medicine.[1][2]

    Wood

    The tree is more known for its fruit rather than for its timber. However, mango trees can be converted to lumber once their fruit bearing lifespan has finished. The wood is susceptible to damage from fungi and insects.[8] The wood is used for musical instruments such as ukuleles,[8] plywood and low-cost furniture.[9] The wood is also known to produce phenolic substances that can cause contact dermatitis.[10]

    Mango varieties

    References

    1. ^ a b c Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K. (2010). "Mangifera Indica (Mango)". Pharmacognosy Reviews. 4 (7): 42–48. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.65325. PMC 3249901. PMID 22228940..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ a b "USDA Plant guide, Mangifera indica L." (PDF).
    3. ^ Sauer, Jonathan D. (1993). Historical geography of crop plants : a select roster. Boca Raton u.a.: CRC Press. p. 17. ISBN 0849389011.
    4. ^ Gepts, P. (n.d.). "PLB143: Crop of the Day: Mango, Mangifera indica". The evolution of crop plants. Dept. of Plant Sciences, Sect. of Crop & Ecosystem Sciences, University of California, Davis. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
    5. ^ "Mangifera indica". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved October 8, 2009.
    6. ^ Barreto J.C.; Trevisan M.T.S.; Hull W.E.; Erben G.; De Brito E.S.; Pfundstein B.; Würtele G.; Spiegelhalder B.; Owen R.W. (2008). "Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (14): 5599–5610. doi:10.1021/jf800738r. PMID 18558692.
    7. ^ Urushiol CASRN: 53237-59-5 TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network) NLM (NIH). Retrieved 22 January 2014.
    8. ^ a b "Mango". The Wood Database. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
    9. ^ "Economic importance of Mangifera indica". Green Clean Guide. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
    10. ^ Tu, series editor, Anthony T. (1983). Handbook of natural toxins. New York: Dekker. p. 425. ISBN 0824718933.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Tropical Himalaya, India, Ceylon, Burma, Indo-China, Malaysia, widely cultivated and often naturalised in Tropics.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Distribution: Widely cultivated in the tropics.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    S Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, S Yunnan [native to continental SE Asia; cultivated in tropical regions worldwide].

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    The ‘mango’ is a native of Burma, Sikkim, Khasia and the W. Ghats (India). Widely cultivated in the Punjab and Sind for its edible and tasty grafted varieties.
    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    This species is a popular tropical fruit tree with more than a hundred cultivars.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    A glabrous tree up to 15 m tall. Leaves 11-24 x 4-8 cm, oblong, lanceolate, acuminate, coriaceous, shiny and dark green on upper surface. Flowering panicles erect, conspicuous, longer than the leaves, pubescent. Calyx lobes ovate, pubescent on the outside. Petals imbricate, oblong, inner surface prominently 3-nerved. Drupe ± ovoid in outline, compressed, 3.5-20 cm long. Mesocarp fleshy. Endocarp (stone) hard and fibrous.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Trees, 10-20 m tall; branchlets brown, glabrous. Petiole 2-6 cm, grooved apically, inflated basally; leaf blade oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 12-30 × 3.5-6.5 cm, leathery, deep green adaxially, light green abaxially, glabrous on both sides, base cuneate to obtuse, margin entire, undulate, apex acute to long acuminate, lateral veins 20-25 pairs, midrib prominent on both sides, reticulate venation obscure. Inflorescence paniculate, terminal, 20-35 cm, glabrous to tomentose-pilose; bracts ca. 1.5 mm, lanceolate pubescent. Pedicels 1.5-3 mm, articulate. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-3 × ca. 1.5 mm, glabrous to pubescent, acuminate. Petals light yellow with prominent red tree-shaped pattern adaxially, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 3.5-4 × ca. 1.5 mm, glabrous, recurved at anthesis. Fertile stamen 1, ca. 2.5 mm, with ovate anther; staminodes 4, 0.7-1 mm. Disk inflated, fleshy, 5-lobed. Ovary oblique, ovate, ca. 1.5 mm in diam. at anthesis; style ca. 2.5 mm, eccentric. Drupe oblong to subreniform, greenish yellow to red, 5-10 × 3-4.5 cm; fleshy mesocarp bright yellow; endocarp ± compressed. Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. May-Jul.
    Elevation Range
    provided by eFloras
    300-700 m

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Mangifera austroyunnanensis Hu.

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Cultivated; 200-1400 m.

Associations

    Associations
    provided by EOL staff

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla) can be used to control a variety of mango pests. Drops of formic acid from the ants can leave black marks on the mango fruit skin, but this aesthetic problem can be reduced if ant colonies are isolated from each other, thereby minimizing aggression. (Peng and Christian 2009; VanMele et al. 2009)

General Ecology

    Ecology
    provided by EOL staff

    The flowers of Mangifera indica are rather strongly scented, producing a sweetish odor that is easily detected by a human from several meters away. Many insects appear to be attracted by the scent, especially cyclorrhaphan flies. The flowers produce nectar from sepal glands located on the outer margin of the disc, between the petals and the disc proper. The nectar is consumed by flies, beetles, and lepidopterans. A single 10 to 60 cm flower panicle can contain 1000 to 6000 flowers. However, 65 to 85% of the flowers remain unpollinated and, based on pollinator-exclusion trials, mango flowers are apparently not capable of autogamy (self-fertilization). Of observed diurnal flower visitors, Jiron and Headström (1985) reported that 51.6% were flies (especially syrphids, calliphorids, and sciarids), 33% were lepidopterans (especially nymphalids and lycaenids), 11.6% were beetles, and 3.6% were hymenopterans. Syrphid flies acounted for 20.9% of all flower visitors. Nocturnal visitors included Culex mosquitos and unidentified noctuid moths. Insects observed resting on flowers at night included rhynchosciarid sciarids, tipulid flies, Strigoderma rutelina (Scarabaeidae), and Chauliognathus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae). Although detailed pollination studies were not carried out, all observed visitors carried pollen except the lepidopterans, tipulids, and the hymenopteran Synoeca septentrionalis. The syrphids and calliphorids carried the most pollen on their bodies. (Jiron and Headström 1985)

    Malerbo-Souza and Halak (2009) also found that flies were the most frequent visitors to mango flowers (other consistent visitors were Tetragonisca angustula bees and Diabrotica speciosa beetles). Fruit set was higher from flowers visited by insects.

    Mangifera indica produces only hermaphrodite and staminate (male) flowers. Jiron and Headström (1985) found that in nearly all mango flowers, of the five stamens around the outer edge of the disc of observed hermaphrodite flowers, nearly all had just a single well developed stamen, which produced pollen; just a few percent had two fertile stamens. Singh (1954) found that mango varieties with a high proportion of staminate flowers produced few fruits.

Cyclicity

Evolution

    Systematics and Taxonomy
    provided by EOL staff

    Eiadthong et al. (1999) used PCR-RFLP to investigate relationships among 13 Mangifera species in Thailand, but low genetic variation permitted little phylogenetic resolution. Yonemori et al. (2002) used ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA to investigate phylogenetic relationships among 14 of the 15 Mangifera species (including M. indica) known from Thailand. Nishiyama et al. (2006) used genomic in situ hybridization to examine phylogenetic relationships among Mangifera indica and eight wild Mangifera species.

Genetics

    Genetics
    provided by EOL staff

    Microsatellite markers for investigating genetic variation and distinguishing mango cultivars have been developed by Duval et al. (2005), Honsho et al. (2005), Schnell et al. (2005), and Viruel et al. (2005).

Benefits

    Uses
    provided by EOL staff

    Mango fruits are an excellent source of vitamin C and carotenoids and Oliveira et al. (2010) found that the nutrient content of mangos was quite stable during fruit processing in a commercial restaurant.

Risks

    Risk Statement
    provided by EOL staff

    Although mango fruits are economically and culturally important across much of the world, like many other members of the Anacardiaceae, they contain toxic phenols that can cause serious contact dermatitis and other (occasionally very serious) allergic reactions in some people (Aguilar-Ortigoza et al. 2003). Prior exposure to poison ivy (Toxicodendron, also in the Anacardiaceae) appears to make an allergic reaction to mango more likely (Hershko et al. 2005).

Notes

    Morphological Characterization, Quality, Yield and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Alphonso Mango (Mangifera indica L.)
    provided by EOL authors
    Alphonso is the most delicious variety of mango (Mangifera indica L.) known for its excellent texture, taste, and richness with vitamins and minerals. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on morphological characteristics, quality, yield and molecular assessment of mango. A plot of 16 acres lands used for this study with already grown mango trees. This plot was divided into two parts. One part was considered as control, while another part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment without physically touching and referred as treated. The treated mango trees showed new straight leaves, without any distortion and infection, whereas the control trees showed very few, distorted, infected, and curly leaves. Moreover, the flowering pattern of control trees did not alter; it was on average 8 to 10 inches with more male flowers. However, the flowering pattern of treated trees was completely transformed into compact one being 4 to 5 inches in length and having more female flowers. Additionally, the weight of matured ripened mango was found on an average 275 gm, medium sized with 50% lesser pulp in the control fruits, while the fruits of biofield energy treated trees showed on average weight of 400 gm, large sized and having 75% higher pulp as compared to the control. Apart from morphology, the quality and nutritional components of mango fruits such as acidity content was increased by 65.63% in the treated sample. Vitamin C content in the treated Alphonso mango pulp was 43.75% higher than the pulp obtained from the control mango farm. The spongy tissue content in pulp of the matured ripened mangoes was decreased by 100% for two consecutive years as compared to the control. Moreover, the yield of flowers and fruits in the treated trees were increased about 95.45 and 47.37%, respectively as compared to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample did not show any true polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on the mango trees showed a significant improvement in the morphology, quality and overall productivity along with 100% reduction in the spongy tissue disorder. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of quality mangoes.