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Brief Summary

    Spinach: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia
    This article is about the plant. For other uses under leaf vegetables, see spinach (disambiguation).

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia. Its leaves are commonly eaten as a vegetable, either fresh, frozen, canned, chipped, or dehydrated.

    It is an annual plant (rarely biennial) growing as tall as 30 cm (1 ft). Spinach may overwinter in temperate regions. The leaves are alternate, simple, ovate to triangular, and very variable in size: 2–30 cm (1–12 in) long and 1–15 cm (0.4–5.9 in) broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm (0.1–0.2 in) in diameter, and mature into a small, hard, dry, lumpy fruit cluster 5–10 mm (0.2–0.4 in) across containing several seeds. In 2016, China produced 92% of the world's total quantity of spinach.

    Common spinach, S. oleracea, was long considered to be in the family Chenopodiaceae, but in 2003 that family was merged into the Amaranthaceae in the order Caryophyllales. Within the family Amaranthaceae sensu lato, Spinach belongs to the subfamily Chenopodioideae.

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    b1980d222205cff3adfa800ca224fe71

Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    introduced; Calif., Conn., Maine, Mass., N.H., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Va., Wash.; Eurasia; n Africa.
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 4: 259, 302 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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    25965_distribution
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Distribution: Probably originated from S.tetrandra Stev. in W. Asia.
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of Pakistan Vol. 204 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
    editor
    S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    25974

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Reports of populations in Canada and inland areas of the United States appear to be from gardens where the plants do not persist without benefit of cultivation.

    Spinach is an important and widely cultivated crop of unknown origin, though known from the Mediterranean region since ancient times. The plant is prized as a rich source of vitamins, calcium, iron, and antioxidant carotenoids, but, if ingested in excessive amounts, the high concentration of oxalates in the leaves can be toxic by inhibiting the absorption of calcium. The cultivated form named var. oleracea has spiny seeds and tends to be more cold hardy than var. inermis, the smooth-seeded variety that is more tolerant of warm weather.

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    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 4: 259, 302 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    25963
    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Spinach is widely cultivated and sometimes naturalized or found as an escape from cultivation; leaves are commonly used as vegetable. It contains a considerable amount of vitamins A, B and C, iron and phosphorus and sufficient protein inferior only to meat; and thus an important food for weak and anaemic persons; it is said to increase secretions of stomach and function of pancreas.
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    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of Pakistan Vol. 204 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
    editor
    S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
    project
    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    25971
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Stems leafy, 1-5(-10) dm. Leaves gradually becoming smaller distally; blade oblong, base cuneate. Bracteoles orbicular-obovate, usually wider than long, apex with divergent spine or smooth. 2n = 12.
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    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 4: 259, 302 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    25962
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Plants to 1 m tall. Root reddish, rarely white, conic. Stem simple or few branched, hollow. Leaf blade light green, hastate to ovate, slightly succulent, margin entire or with a few lobelike teeth. Male flowers: perianth segments usually 4; filaments filiform, flattened; anthers without an appendage. Fruiting bracts slightly compressed, with a thornlike appendage on each side, apex with 2 teeth; stigmas exserted. Utricle ovoid or subglobose, compressed, ca. 2.5 mm in diam.; pericarp brown.
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 5: 366 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    25966
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Annual or biennial, dioecious herb, 20-60 cm tall, erect, light green, glabrous. Leaves ovate to triangular-hastate, entire or dentate, lower long-petiolate, usually entire, Staminate flowers in interrupted spiciform panicles, with 4 (-5) perianth segments and stamens; pistillate flowers in dense axillary sessile clusters, each separated and falling so in fruit; bracteoles in fruit orbicular-obovate, usually broader than long, free, with (f. spinosa) or without (f. glabra) divergent spines at the apex.
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    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of Pakistan Vol. 204 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
    editor
    S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    25970

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    S.spinosa Moench., Meth. 318. 1794; S.glabra Mill.., Gard. Dict. ed. 8 (2): 1768; S.tetrandra auct. non Stev. (1809); Roxb., F1. Ind. 3: 711. 1824.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of Pakistan Vol. 204 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
    editor
    S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
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    eFloras
    ID
    25969

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Waste areas; 0-1500m.
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    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 4: 259, 302 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
    project
    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    25965
    Habitat & Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Commonly cultivated as a vegetable. in China [unknown in the wild; widely cultivated in temperate and subtropical regions of the world].
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 5: 366 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    25967

Cyclicity