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Comments

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This species is usually grown as an ornamental. The wood is used as construction material, the leaves as animal feed, and the roots as medicine.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of China Vol. 11: 116 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Description

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Trees to 25 m tall or more. Bark exfoliating. Young branches with dark grayish brown lenticels. Leaves 15-60 cm or more; petiole and rachis cylindric, glabrous; leaflets 8-32, subopposite to alternate, apical 2 pairs opposite; petiolules 5-10 mm; leaflet blades basally on rachis ovate but apically on rachis oblong to elliptic, 7-17 × 3-6 cm, abaxially greenish white, adaxially dark green, secondary veins 9-14 on each side of midvein and prominent on both surfaces when dry, base broadly cuneate to ± rounded, margin entire, apex mucronate to acuminate. Thyrses shorter than leaves, glabrous. Sepals 4, distinct, oblong, ca. 1 mm. Petals 4, oblong to obovate, ca. 3 mm, glabrous. Staminal tube urceolate. Ovary ovoid, usually 4-locular, with amphitropous ovules. Capsule globose, woody, septifragal from apex when mature; pericarp thick. Seeds ellipsoid to suborbicular, broad, margin with a round membranous wing.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 11: 116 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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Habitat & Distribution

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Cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan [native to tropical Africa].
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 11: 116 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Synonym

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Swietenia senegalensis Desrousseaux in Lamarck, Encycl. 3: 679. 1791.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 11: 116 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Khaya senegalensis

provided by EOL authors

Khaya senegalensis, also known as Senegal mahogany, is a tree that grows to be about 30 meters high with a 3 meter girth (Gaoue, Ticktin, 2007: 425). Its bark is very rough, scaly and dark grey. The species also has a dense crown of leaves, which is high up on the tree. Its flowers are white and sweet-scented, and its fruit changes from a grey to a black as it ripens (Gaoue, Ticktin, 2007: 425).

Khaya senegalensis is native to central African countries (Nikles 2008: 34). The three main regions of this part of Africa are known as the Guineo-Congolean, Sudano-Guinean, and Sudanian regions (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 425). The species can thrive from sea level up to 1800 meters in elevation. It is known to also thrive in a variety of different soils including dry deserts, forests, and higher-rainfall savannah woodlands. It is also very resistant to flooding and is sometimes considered for planting on swampy soils. It is tolerant to rainfall of up to 1750mm, however it can survive in dry areas (Nikles, Bevege, Dickinson, Griffifths, Riley, & Lee, 2008: 34). The Sudano-Guinean woodland region is comparably wetter, with a rainfall of 1100-1300mm, than the dry Sudanian region in the savannah that has a rainfall of 800-1100mm (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2008: 35). The more environmentally stressful region of Sudan yields fewer fruit and seeds from its trees when compared to the less stressful region of Sudano-Guinean (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2008: 37).

This species is listed as vulnerable because of harvesting for timber, fuel, dyes, tannins, fodder, and medicinal uses (World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 1998; Gaoue & Ticktin, 2008: 34-35).). Khaya senegalensis bark is used to treat malaria, intestinal diseases, and anemia (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2008: 34-35). The bark also feeds many African native’s cattle, and the whole tree can be cut down for lumber (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2008: 34). The bark is also believed to cure some livestock diseases (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 425). Livestock is a main source of income for West African Fulani (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2008, 2009: 34, 425). Fulani also gain income by selling milk from their livestock, and to increase milk production they feed their livestock Khaya senegalensis leaves (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2009: 258). Khaya senegalensis is illegally harvested by commercial companies for lumber (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 425).

A study was conducted in the Republic of Benin in West Africa to quantify harvest patterns (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 425). Density of Khaya senegalensis also changes depending on region and harvest intensity (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 431). In both the region of Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean, all of the trees in the largest size-classes were harvested (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 428). Of the high harvest populations in both the Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean regions the percentage of trees pruned was 58%, the percentage of debarked trees was 18%, and the percentage of trees pruned and debarked was 13% (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 428). Of the low harvest populations of the Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean regions the percentage of trees pruned was 5%, the percentage of trees debarked was 10%, and the percentage of trees pruned and debarked was 13% (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 428). Local harvesters prefer to debark larger trees, with most trees being harvested for 50% or more of their trunk bark (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 430). Partially debarked trunks recovered and regrew half of the wound, unlike a tree that has been debarked across its entire circumference; which are known as ringbarked trees (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 428). The removal of bark exposes the internal structures of the species which could lead to fungal attacks, parasitic attacks, and severe dryness (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2008: 35).

High harvest rates across the Guineo-Congolean, Sudano-Guinean, and Sudanian regions of West Africa affect the reproduction rates of this species and can decrease fruit and seed production (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2008: 34). Percentage of fruiting trees varied from each region and its harvest intensity (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 45). In the Sudanian region, high harvest locations had about 25% fruiting trees and low harvest locations had about 32% (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2008: 45). In the Sudanian-Guinean region, high harvest locations had about 5% fruiting trees, and low harvest locations had about 32% (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2008: 45).

Now that Fulani harvesters are noticing a decrease in population, these people are choosing to harvest smaller trees (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007, 2008: 39, 430). This choice in smaller trees prevents the high risk involved with climbing and harvesting bark (Gaoue & Ticktin; 2009: 258). Pruning requires skill and experience because of the difficulty involved to climb Khaya senegalensis (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 432).

Fulani have kept the tradition of leaving the top branches of the tree unpruned, which they call “sopoodu”, in order for the tree to continue to reproduce and grow (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007b: 433). About 75-99% of the Khaya senegalensis population has “sopoodu” in Benin (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 433). Fulani believe that pruning and harvesting increases quality and quantity of leaves produced (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2009: 260). Although the Fulani believe that protecting this tree is important, they do not believe that the level of harvesting will decrease because of the many helpful uses it provides to the people of Benin (Gaoue & Ticktin, 2009: 260). This species, with a vulnerable status, could be saved by passing down the tradition of leaving “sopoodu” on the tree after harvesting and planting new trees around native’s homes (RedList, 2014, Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 433). Fulani also state that populations are decreasing because of international logging pressure for use of furniture, trim, plywood, decorative pieces, and boatbuilding (TheWoodDatabase 2015; Gaoue & Ticktin, 2007: 39).

Some areas protect the species by only allowing restricted access to the area and use of its resources. For example, conservation of Khaya senegalensis is becoming a priority in Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria (Amusa, 2010: 182).

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Olivia Tillotson and Chelsea Stratton
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Khaya senegalensis

provided by wikipedia EN

Khaya senegalensis is a species of tree in the Meliaceae family that is native to Africa. Common names include African mahogany, dry zone mahogany, Gambia mahogany, khaya wood, Senegal mahogany, cailcedrat, acajou, djalla, and bois rouge.

Description

African mahogany is a medium-sized tree which can grow up to 15–30 m in height and 1 m in diameter. The bark is dark grey to grey-brown while the heartwood is brown with a pink-red pigment made up of coarse interlocking grains. The tree is characterised by leaves arranged in a spiral formation clustered at the end of branches. The white flowers are sweet-scented; the fruit changes from grey to black when ripening.

Distribution and habitat

The tree is native to Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, and Uganda. It is found in riparian forests and higher-rainfall savannah woodlands; in moist regions it is found on higher ground. Within its first year, the seedling develops a deep root system that makes it the most drought resistant member of its genus.

Uses

The wood is used for a variety of purposes. It is often used conventionally for carpentry, interior trim, and construction. Traditionally the wood was used for dugout canoes, household implements, djembe, and fuel wood. The bitter tasting bark is used for a variety of medical purposes; it is taken against fever caused by malaria, stomach complaints, and headaches. It is applied externally to cure skin rashes, wounds, or any abnormality. It has been exported from West Africa (Gambia) to Europe since the first half of the 19th century and has been exploited heavily for its timber. It is now used more locally, and is planted ornamentally as a roadside tree.

Conservation and threats

Khaya senegalensis has experienced high amounts of exploitation, and little regeneration takes place once disturbance occurs. Because of this the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species considers it a vulnerable species. The only conservation which takes place are log export bans and legal protection in some countries.

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Khaya senegalensis - MHNT

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Khaya senegalensis - MHNT

References

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Khaya senegalensis: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Khaya senegalensis is a species of tree in the Meliaceae family that is native to Africa. Common names include African mahogany, dry zone mahogany, Gambia mahogany, khaya wood, Senegal mahogany, cailcedrat, acajou, djalla, and bois rouge.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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