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This species is widely cultivated in mild-temperate regions (especially C and SW Asia and C and S Europe) for its aromatic fruit (anise), which is used in perfume and to flavor alcoholic drinks and confectionary. The species has reputed medicinal value in China.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of China Vol. 14: 95 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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Description

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Plants annual, 10–50 cm, sparsely shortly pubescent throughout, strongly aromatic. Taproot slender. Stem much-branched. Leaves heteromorphic. Basal leaves simple; petioles 2–5 cm; blade reniform or broad-ovate, 1–3 × 1.2–2.8 cm, puberulent along veins, margin serrate. Cauline leaves 1–2-pinnate; ultimate segments ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 6–17 × 2–7 mm, 3-lobed margin serrate or lacerate. Leaves reduced upwards, becoming 3-lobed; lobes lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. Umbels 1.5–6 cm across; bracts 1(or 2) or absent, linear-lanceolate, 1–2 mm; rays 7–15, 1–4 cm, unequal; bracteoles 1(or 2) or absent, linear, 2–3 mm; umbellules 5–10 mm across, ca. 10-flowered; pedicels 2–6 mm, extending to 10 mm in fruit. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals white, obcordate, abaxially pubescent, apex with incurved lobule. Stylopodium conic; styles ca. 3 × stylopodium, ca. 0.5 × fruit, spreading or reflexed. Fruit oblong-ovoid, 3–5 × 2–2.5 mm, densely appressed setose-hairy; vittae 2–4 in each furrow, 4–8 on commissure, nearly forming a continuous ring around seed. Seed face plane. Fl. Jun–Jul, fr. Aug–Sep. 2n = 20.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 14: 95 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Habitat & Distribution

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Cultivated. Xinjiang [possibly native to SW Asia, but now known only in cultivation].
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 14: 95 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Brief Summary

provided by EOL authors
Anise (Pimpinella anisum) is a native of the Near East which was used by the Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans and was grown across most of Europe by the Middle Ages. It was later introduced also into Asia and the New World. The small, hard, grayish brown fruits are rich in an essential oil (up to 3.5%), the main constituent of which is anethole. The tiny fruits (and the oil prepared from them) have a range of uses, e.g., in Indian and European cuisine, confections, and drinks (e.g., French pastis, Greek arak, Basque Patxaran, and anisette, among others; Anli and Bayram 2010). Anise is a member of the carrot family (Apiaceae=Umbelliferae). It is an annual 60 to 70 cm in height. The lower leaves are heart-shaped, but the upper ones are divided. The small white flowers are borne in compound umbels. Star Anise (Illicium verum) is sometimes used as a substitute for true Anise. Star Anise, which is cultivated in Southeast Asia, is a member of a different family (the magnolia family, Magnoliaceae), but contains an essential oil similar to that found in true Anise. (Vaughan and Geissler 1997)
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Leo Shapiro
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Distribution

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Anise is native to the Mediterranean region, particularly Egypt, Greece, and Asia Minor. It spread to Tuscany under Roman cultivation and then into central Europe during the Middle Ages, also under cultivation. By the mid sixteenth century it was being cultivated as far north as England. It is no longer known from any truly wild habitats and is now cultivated throughout the world, notably India and South America.

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Rachel Sargent
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Habitat

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Anise grows well in warm temperate zones, needing full sun and warm summers for its fruits to mature. It does not grow in the shade. It prefers sandy to loamy soil that is well-drained, dry to moist, and with a pH from 6 to 7.5.

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Anise

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Anise (/ˈænɪs/;[3] Pimpinella anisum), also called aniseed,[4] is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia.[5]

Its flavor has similarities with some other spices, such as star anise,[4] fennel, and liquorice. It is widely cultivated and used to flavor food and alcoholic drinks, especially around the Mediterranean.

Etymology

The name "anise" is derived via Old French from the Latin word, anisum, or Greek, anison, referring to dill.[6]

Description

"
Anise fruits
"
Cross section of anise fruit seen on light microscope

Anise is an herbaceous annual plant growing to 3 ft (0.9 m) or more tall. The leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 38–2 in (1–5 cm) long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems are feathery pinnate, divided into numerous small leaflets. The flowers are either white or yellow, approximately 18 inch (3 mm) in diameter, produced in dense umbels. The fruit is an oblong dry schizocarp, 1814 in (3–6 mm) long, usually called "aniseed".[7]

Anise is a food plant for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths), including the lime-speck pug and wormwood pug.

Cultivation

"
Anise plant seed in the fields of Sindh

Anise was first cultivated in Egypt and the Middle East, and was brought to Europe for its medicinal value.[8] It has been cultivated in Egypt for approximately 4,000 years.

Anise plants grow best in light, fertile, well-drained soil. The seeds should be planted as soon as the ground warms up in spring. Because the plants have a taproot, they do not transplant well after being established, so they should either be started in their final location or be transplanted while the seedlings are still small.[9]

Production

Western cuisines have long used anise to flavor dishes, drinks, and candies. The word is used for both the species of herb and its licorice-like flavor. The most powerful flavor component of the essential oil of anise, anethole, is found in both anise and an unrelated spice indigenous to northern China[10] called star anise (Illicium verum) widely used in South Asian, Southeast Asian, and East Asian dishes. Star anise is considerably less expensive to produce, and has gradually displaced P. anisum in Western markets. While formerly produced in larger quantities, by 1999 world production of the essential oil of anise was only 8 tons, compared to 400 tons of star anise.[11]

Composition

"
Anise essential oil in clear glass vial

As with all spices, the composition of anise varies considerably with origin and cultivation method. These are typical values for the main constituents.[12]

Moisture: 9–13%
Protein: 18%
Fatty oil: 8–23%
Essential oil: 2–7%
Starch: 5%
N-free extract: 22–28%
Crude fibre: 12–25%

In particular, the anise seeds products should also contain more than 0.2 milliliter volatile oil per 100 grams of spice.[13]

Essential oil

Anise essential oil can be obtained from the fruits by either steam distillation or extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide.[14] The yield of essential oil is influenced by the growing conditions[15] and extraction process, with supercritical extraction being more efficient.[14] Regardless of the method of isolation the main component of the oil is anethole (80–90%), with minor components including 4-anisaldehyde, estragole and pseudoisoeugenyl-2-methylbutyrates, amongst others.[16] Anethole is responsible for anise's characteristic odor and flavor.[17]

Uses

Culinary

"
An unwrapped 'Troach drop', purchased at the Black Country Living Museum in the English Midlands, where such sweets are traditional.

Anise is sweet and very aromatic, distinguished by its characteristic flavour.[7] The seeds, whole or ground, are used for preparation of teas and tisanes (alone or in combination with other aromatic herbs), as well as in a wide variety of regional and ethnic confectioneries, including black jelly beans, British aniseed balls and "troach" drops,[18] Australian humbugs, New Zealand aniseed wheels, Italian pizzelle, German Pfeffernüsse and Springerle, Austrian Anisbögen, Dutch muisjes, New Mexican bizcochitos, and Peruvian picarones. It is a key ingredient in Mexican atole de anís and champurrado, which is similar to hot chocolate, and it is taken as a digestive after meals in Pakistan and India.

The ancient Romans often served spiced cakes with aniseed called mustaceoe[19] at the end of feasts as a digestive. This tradition of serving cake at the end of festivities is the basis for the tradition of serving cake at weddings.[20]

Liquor

Anise is used to flavor Greek ouzo;[21] Italian sambuca;[21] Bulgarian mastika;[21] French absinthe, anisette,[22] and pastis;[23] Spanish Anís del Mono,[24] Anísado[21] and Herbs de Majorca;[25] Turkish and Armenian rakı;[21] Lebanese, Egyptian, Syrian, Jordanian, Israeli and Palestinian arak;[21] and Algerian Anisette Cristal.[21] Outside the Mediterranean region, it is found in Colombian aguardiente[22] and Mexican Xtabentún.[26] These liquors are clear, but on addition of water become cloudy, a phenomenon known as the ouzo effect.[27][28]

Anise is used together with other herbs and spices in some root beers, such as Virgil's in the United States.[29][30]

Traditional medicine

The main use of anise in traditional European herbal medicine was for its carminative effect (reducing flatulence),[4] as noted by John Gerard in his Great Herball, an early encyclopedia of herbal medicine:

The seed wasteth and consumeth winde, and is good against belchings and upbraidings of the stomacke, alaieth gripings of the belly, provoketh urine gently, maketh abundance of milke, and stirreth up bodily lust: it staieth the laske (diarrhea), and also the white flux (leukorrhea) in women.[31]

According to Pliny the Elder, anise was used as a cure for sleeplessness, chewed with alexanders and a little honey in the morning to freshen the breath, and, when mixed with wine, as a remedy for asp bites (N.H. 20.72).[32] In 19th-century medicine, anise was prepared as aqua anisi ("Water of Anise") in doses of an ounce or more and as spiritus anisi ("Spirit of Anise") in doses of 5–20 minims.[8] In Turkish folk medicine, its seeds have been used as an appetite stimulant, tranquilizer, or diuretic.[33]

Other uses

Builders of steam locomotives in Britain incorporated capsules of aniseed oil into white metal plain bearings, so the distinctive smell would give warning in case of overheating.[34] Anise can be made into a liquid scent and is used for both drag hunting and fishing. It is put on fishing lures to attract fish.[35][36]

References

  1. ^ from Franz Eugen Köhlae, Köhlae's Medizinal-Pflanzen, 1897
  2. ^ The Plant List, Pimpinella anisum L.
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "anise, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1884.
  4. ^ a b c Baynes 1878.
  5. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Anice vera, Pimpinella anisum L.
  6. ^ "Anise". Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press. 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  7. ^ a b Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) from Gernot Katzer’s Spice Pages
  8. ^ a b Chisholm 1911.
  9. ^ How to Grow Anise Archived August 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine from growingherbs.org.uk
  10. ^ Peter, K. V. (2004). Handbook of Herbs and Spices. Woodhead Publishing. p. 290. ISBN 978-1-85573-721-1.
  11. ^ Philip R. Ashurst (1999). Food Flavorings. Springer. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8342-1621-1.
  12. ^ J.S. Pruthi: Spices and Condiments, New Delhi: National Book Trust (1976), p. 19.
  13. ^ Branch, Legislative Services. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Food and Drug Regulations". laws.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  14. ^ a b Pereira, Camila G.; Meireles, M. Angela A. (September 2007). "Economic analysis of rosemary, fennel and anise essential oils obtained by supercritical fluid extraction". Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 22 (5): 407–413. doi:10.1002/ffj.1813.
  15. ^ Zehtab-salmasi, S.; Javanshir, A.; Omidbaigi, R.; Alyari, H.; Ghassemi-golezani, K. (May 2001). "Effects of water supply and sowing date on performance and essential oil production of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.)". Acta Agronomica Hungarica. 49 (1): 75–81. doi:10.1556/AAgr.49.2001.1.9.
  16. ^ Rodrigues, Vera M.; Rosa, Paulo T. V.; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Petenate, Ademir J.; Meireles, M. Angela A. (March 2003). "Supercritical Extraction of Essential Oil from Aniseed using sCO2: Solubility, Kinetics, and Composition Data". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51 (6): 1518–1523. doi:10.1021/jf0257493. PMID 12617576.
  17. ^ Jodral, Manuel Miro. Illicium, Pimpinella and Foeniculum. CRC Press, 2004. pp. 205
  18. ^ "FWB - Aniseed/Troach Drops (Wrapped)". www.thewelshsweetshop.com. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  19. ^ "Anise History". Our Herb Garden. March 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
  20. ^ "Wedding Cake: A Slice of History | Carol Wilson". Gastronomica. 2005-05-05. Retrieved 2017-11-13.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Dealberto, Clara; Desrayaud, Lea (25 July 2017). "Le pastis, elixir provencal". Le Monde. Le Monde. p. 28.
  22. ^ a b "16 Anise-Flavored Liquors | SenseList". senselist.com. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  23. ^ Blocker, Jack S. Jr.; Fahey, David M.; Tyrrell, Ian R. (2003). Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 478–. ISBN 978-1-57607-833-4. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  24. ^ Zurdo, David; Gutiérrez, Ángel (2004). El libro de los licores de España. Ediciones Robinbook. p. 50. ISBN 9788496054127. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  25. ^ "Majorcan herb liqueur in Spain". Spain.info. 2007-04-23. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  26. ^ "Xtabentún Cocktail Guide, with Origins and Recipes". Wine Enthusiast Magazine. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  27. ^ Sitnikova, Natalia L.; Sprik, Rudolf; Wegdam, Gerard; Eiser, Erika (2005). "Spontaneously Formed trans-Anethol/Water/Alcohol Emulsions: Mechanism of Formation and Stability". Langmuir. 21 (16): 7083–7089. doi:10.1021/la046816l. PMID 16042427.
  28. ^ Ganachaud, François; Katz, Joseph L. (2005). "Nanoparticles and Nanocapsules Created Using the Ouzo Effect: Spontaneous Emulsification as an Alternative to Ultrasonic and High-Shear Devices". ChemPhysChem. 6 (2): 209–216. doi:10.1002/cphc.200400527. PMID 15751338.
  29. ^ "Virgil's Bavarian Nutmeg". Reeds. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  30. ^ "Virgil's Rootbeer – Spike's Root Beer Reviews and Ratings". Root Beer Reviews. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  31. ^ John Gerard, The Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes, 1597, p. 880, side 903
  32. ^ Pliny (1856). "Book XX. Anise—sixty-one remedies". The Natural History of Pliny. 4. translators John Bostock, Henry Riley. London: Henry Bohn. pp. 271–274. OCLC 504358830.
  33. ^ Baytop, T. (1999) Therapy with medicinal plants in Turkey, Past and Present. Kitapevi, Istanbul, Turkey, 2nd edition, pp. 142.
  34. ^ Railway Magazine. 99: 287. 1953.CS1 maint: untitled periodical (link)
  35. ^ Collins, Tony (2005). Encyclopedia of traditional British rural sports. Abingdon, England: Routledge. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-415-35224-6.
  36. ^ Gabriel, Otto; von Brandt, Andres (2005). Fish catching methods of the world (4 ed.). Oxford, England: Blackwell. pp. 153–4. ISBN 978-0-85238-280-6.
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Anise: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Anise (/ˈænɪs/; Pimpinella anisum), also called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia.

Its flavor has similarities with some other spices, such as star anise, fennel, and liquorice. It is widely cultivated and used to flavor food and alcoholic drinks, especially around the Mediterranean.

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN