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Brief Summary

    Ipomoea violacea: Brief Summary
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    Ipomoea violacea is a perennial species of Ipomoea that occurs throughout the world with the exception of the European continent. It is most commonly called beach moonflower or sea moonflower as the flowers open at night.

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Comprehensive Description

    Ipomoea violacea
    provided by wikipedia

    Ipomoea violacea is a perennial species of Ipomoea that occurs throughout the world with the exception of the European continent. It is most commonly called beach moonflower or sea moonflower as the flowers open at night.[1]

    Description

    The corolla of the flower of Ipomoea violacea is white, distinguishing this species from Ipomoea tricolor, commonly called Heavenly Blue. It is sometimes mistaken for the cultivar Pearly Gates, the corolla of which is also white, probably because of its misleading Latin binomial name, Ipomoea violacea, "violacea" meaning purple.[2]

    Comparative taxonomies

    A comparison of the taxonomy of the two plants shows that they belong to different Subgenera, consequently, Ipomoea violacea should not be used as a synonym for Ipomoea tricolor. In exceptional cases where Ipomoea violacea has to be used as a synonym of Ipomoea tricolor, one must specify the incorrect usage by using the abbreviation 'Auct.' for Auctorum.[3]

    Ipomoea violacea:[3]

    • Genus: Ipomoea
    • Subgenus: Eriospermum
    • Section: Erpipomoea

    Ipomoea tricolor:[4]

    • Genus: Ipomoea
    • Subgenus: Quamoclit
    • Section: Tricolor

    LSA presence

    The Native Americans of Mexico are known to have long used the seeds of species of Ipomoea for preparing psychedelic infusions; several scientific studies indicate they contain several ergoline alkaloids with effects somewhat similar to, but weaker than, those of LSD[5][6] It is possible that some of these studies may have mistaken Ipomoea violacea for Ipomoea tricolor, e.g., works published in the scientific journal Phytochemistry[7] and quoted by the Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia,[8] which purportedly showed the presence of Ergine, also known as d-lysergic acid amide (LSA) in Ipomoea violacea.

    The discoverer of LSD, Albert Hofmann, himself misleads the reader in his book Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Healing, and Hallucinogenic Powers by describing Ipomoea tricolor (the flower shown in the book is clearly one of Ipomoea tricolor, heavenly blue), but is labeled as Ipomoea violacea. As specified in the upper section of its description, Ipomoea violacea's corolla is white only. Because studies on the presence of LSA in Ipomoea violacea do not specify the complete taxonomy of the plant, it cannot be certain that Ipomoea violacea contains d-lysergic acid amide. As of 2016, only Ipomoea tricolor is proved to contain LSA in its seeds.

    References

     src= Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ipomoea violacea.  src= Wikispecies has information related to Ipomoea violacea
    1. ^ "Ipomoea violacea". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 18 December 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Herbarium musei parisiensis
    3. ^ a b "Ipomoea violacea auct". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 18 December 2017.
    4. ^ "Ipomoea tricolor". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 18 December 2017.
    5. ^ "Extraction and Identification of Clavine and Lysergic Acid Alkaloids from Morning Glories" (PDF). Ohio Journal of Science. 75 (4). July 1975.
    6. ^ David S. Seigler Plant secondary metabolism. Springer, 1998, ISBN 0-412-01981-7 p. 655.
    7. ^ Phytochemistry. Volume 57, Issue 5, July 2001, pp. 721–72.
    8. ^ Meira, Marilena; Silva, Eliezer Pereira da; David, Jorge M; David, Juceni P (June 2012). "Review of the genus Ipomoea: traditional uses, chemistry and biological activities". Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 22 (3): 682. doi:10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000025. ISSN 0102-695X.

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Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Guangdong, Hainan (Nanhai Zhudao), Taiwan [Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Africa, N Australia, North America, Pacific Islands, South America].
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 16: 311 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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    65140_distribution

Morphology

    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Plants perennial, woody, twining, glabrous. Stems to 5 m, often longitudinally wrinkled. Petiole 3.5-11 cm; leaf blade circular or ovate, 5-16 X 5-14 cm, base deeply cordate; lobes rounded or rarely angular, apex acuminate, mucronulate; lateral veins 7 or 8 pairs. Inflorescences 1- to few flowered; peduncle often 2.5-4.5(-7) cm. Pedicel 1.5-3 cm, thickened and clavate in fruit. Flowers nocturnal. Sepals ± circular, equal or outer 2 shorter, 1.5-2.5 cm, thinly leathery, apex obtuse or emarginate, mucronulate, enlarged in fruit and reflexed. Corolla white, with green midpetaline bands, salverform, 9-12 cm; limb 8-10 cm in diam. Stamens included; filaments inserted near base of corolla tube. Pistil included; ovary glabrous. Stigma 2-lobed. Capsule pale brown, ovoid to ± globose, 2-2.5 cm, glabrous. Seeds black, 1-1.2 cm, densely short tomentose, edges with ca. 3 mm long sericeous hairs. 2n = 30.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 16: 311 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    65139

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Calonyction grandiflorum (Jacquin) Choisy; C. jacquinii G. Don; C. tuba (Schlechtendal) Colla; Convolvulus grandiflorus Jacquin; Convolvulus tuba Schlechtendal; Ipomoea glaberrima Bojer ex Bouton; I. grandiflora (Jacquin) H. Hallier; I. longiflora R. Brown; I. macrantha Roemer & Schultes; I. tuba (Schlechtendal) G. Don.
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    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 16: 311 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    65138

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Beaches, seaside thickets, edges of brackish rivers and lagoons; near sea level to 100 m.
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 16: 311 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    65140