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Taraxacum erythrospermum Andrz. ex Besser

Brief Summary

    Taraxacum erythrospermum: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Taraxacum erythrospermum, known by the common name red-seeded dandelion, is a species of dandelion found in much of North America, but most commonly in the north.

    It is often considered as a varietas or variety of Taraxacum laevigatum (i.e. Taraxacum laevigatum var. erythrospermum).

Comprehensive Description

    Taraxacum erythrospermum
    provided by wikipedia

    Taraxacum erythrospermum, known by the common name red-seeded dandelion, is a species of dandelion found in much of North America, but most commonly in the north.[1]

    It is often considered as a varietas or variety of Taraxacum laevigatum (i.e. Taraxacum laevigatum var. erythrospermum).[2]

    Description

    This species is very similar and often overlooked as the traditional dandelion, Taraxacum officinale. It most readily differs by its reddish-brown seed bases, unlike the more olive colored seeds of officinale. T. erythrospermum can also be diagnosed by its leaves, which have consistently triangular lobes throughout. In comparison officinale tends to have erratic lobing with minimal or no triangular form. The leaves of erythrospermum thus bear a closer resemblance to the basal leaves of sow thistles (Sonchus oleraceus).

    References

    1. ^ "Red-seeded Dandelion". Archived from the original on 2006-11-16. Retrieved 2009-09-12..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Flora of North America


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Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Early leaves of Taraxacum erythrospermum sometimes may be broadly winged along the midvein, making distinction from T. officinale difficult; usually, its later leaves become more deeply lobed with time.

    The name Taraxacum laevigatum has been used for L. erythrospermum in North America, following H. Handel-Mazzetti (1907). L. H. Shinners (1949) questioned that usage. The name is listed in the index of Flora Europaea (A. J. Richards and P. D. Sell 1973) as an unassigned synonym; it could be related to three different entities of sect. Spectabilia. And, it is not mentioned by other modern students of the group. Therefore, (1) given that the North American entity has not been identified with a particular Eurasian taxon; (2) to avoid using a microspecies name such as T. scanicum; and (3) despite the lack of typification of the name, I am using T. erythrospermum as a place holder until nomenclatural issues are resolved. This clearly associates the taxon with the section to which it belongs.

    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Plants (1–)5–30(–60) cm; taproots seldom branched. Stems 1–15+, ascending to erect, pinkish to reddish, (± equaling foliage), glabrous or sparsely villous, usually more densely so distally. Leaves 20+, horizontal to erect; petioles ± slightly winged distally; blades obovate to oblanceolate (runcinate), 5–25 × 1–4 cm, bases attenuate, margins lacerate, lobes retrorse, triangular to nearly lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate, terminals about as large as distal laterals, teeth usually few, rarely 0, irregular, straight to retrorse, minute to pronounced or secondary lobules, apices usually acute or acuminate, sometimes obtuse, rarely rounded, faces glabrous or glabrate to sparsely villosulous (mainly midveins). Calyculi of 16–18, reflexed to recurved, sometimes glaucous or purplish, lanceolate bractlets in 2 series, 3.8–10 × 1–2 mm, margins white to purplish, narrowly scarious, apices acute or long-acuminate, erose, hornless. Involucres green, tips reddish gray, urceolate (closed) to cylindro-campanulate (open), 10–25 mm. Phyllaries 18–19 in 2 series, lanceolate-linear, 1.2–2.1 mm wide, margins scarious, slightly revolute at green edge, apices long-acuminate, erose-scarious, usually at least some horned. Florets ca. 70–75+; corollas sulphur yellow, outer with abaxial purplish or grayish stripe, 12–16 × 1–1.5 mm. Cypselae brick red to reddish brown or reddish purple, bodies oblanceoloid to obovoid, (2.2–)2.5–3(–4) mm, cones terete, 0.8–1.3 mm, beaks slender, (5–)7–8.5 mm, ribs ca. 15, sharp, faces proximally ± tuberculate (sometimes barely so) to conspicuously muricate in distal 1/2; pappi white to sordid, 4–7 mm. 2n = 16, 24, 32 (Europe).

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Taraxacum laevigatum (Willdenow) de Candolle var. erythrospermum (Andrzejowski ex Besser) J. Weiss; T. officinale F. H. Wiggers var. erythrospermum (Andrzejowski ex Besser) Babington; T. scanicum Dahlstedt