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Canada Goldenrod

Solidago canadensis L.

Brief Summary

    Solidago canadensis: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Solidago canadensis (known as Canada goldenrod or Canadian goldenrod) is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae. It is native to northeastern and north-central North America. It is an invasive plant in other parts of the continent and several areas worldwide, including Europe and Asia. It is often grown as an ornamental in flower gardens.

    The plant is erect, often forming colonies. Flowers are small yellow heads held above the foliage on a branching inflorescence.

Comprehensive Description

    Solidago canadensis
    provided by wikipedia

    Solidago canadensis (known as Canada goldenrod[2] or Canadian goldenrod) is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae. It is native to northeastern and north-central North America[3]. It is an invasive plant in other parts of the continent and several areas worldwide, including Europe and Asia.[4][5][6][7] It is often grown as an ornamental in flower gardens.

    The plant is erect, often forming colonies. Flowers are small yellow heads held above the foliage on a branching inflorescence.

    Ecology and distribution

    Solidago canadensis is sometimes browsed by deer and is good to fair as food for domestic livestock such as cattle or horses.[8]

    It is found in a variety of habitats, although it is not shade tolerant. It typically is one of the first plants to colonize an area after disturbance (such as fire) and rarely persists once shrubs and trees become established. It is found neither in very dry locations nor in waterlogged ones.[8]

    Invasive species

    In many parts of Europe, Japan and China, it is established as an invasive weed.

    In eastern and southeastern China, particularly the provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Jiangxi and Shanghai, its invasion has reached pandemic levels and has caused widespread concern. It has been reported that the spread of invasive plants including Canada goldenrod has caused the extinction of 30 native plants in Shanghai.[9] In the city of Ningbo, Zhejiang, it has reduced local orange harvests.[10] It is still spreading across China, and sightings have been reported in as far as Yunnan province. Various national and provincial authorities have been on high alert.

    In Fukushima, it has colonized the rice fields that have been temporarily abandoned because of the nuclear power plant disaster.[11]

    References

    1. ^ "Solidago canadensis". The Global Compositae Checklist (GCC) – via The Plant List..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "Solidago canadensis". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
    3. ^ "Solidago canadensis". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
    4. ^ Semple, John C.; Cook, Rachel E. (2006). "Solidago canadensis". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee. Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 20. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    5. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Verga d'oro del Canadà, Solidago canadensis L. photos, European distribution map
    6. ^ Chen, Yilin; Semple, John C. "Solidago canadensis". Flora of China – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    7. ^ Atlas of Living Australia
    8. ^ a b Coladonato, Milo (1993). "Solidago canadensis". Fire Effects Information System (FEIS). US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service (USFS), Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Retrieved 2009-08-24 – via https://www.feis-crs.org/feis/.
    9. ^ Jiangsu's battle with Canada Goldenrod (Chinese) Archived 2006-06-24 at the Wayback Machine.
    10. ^ Jiaodianfangtan (Chinese) Archived 2004-12-17 at the Wayback Machine.
    11. ^ Blanchan, Neltje (2005). Wild Flowers Worth Knowing. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Canada goldenrod is widespread across North America. It occurs in
    almost every state and throughout Canada [4,16,34,37].
    Occurrence in North America
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA
    ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA
    MI MN MS MO MT NE NH NJ NY NC
    ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX
    UT VT VA WA WV WI WY AB BC MB
    NB NF NT NS ON PE PQ SK YT
    Regional Distribution in the Western United States
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    2 Cascade Mountains
    4 Sierra Mountains
    5 Columbia Plateau
    6 Upper Basin and Range
    7 Lower Basin and Range
    8 Northern Rocky Mountains
    9 Middle Rocky Mountains
    10 Wyoming Basin
    11 Southern Rocky Mountains
    12 Colorado Plateau
    13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
    14 Great Plains
    15 Black Hills Uplift
    16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Solidago canadensis is cultivated and introduced in more western states and in Europe. Very narrow limits for the species are followed here. Alternatively, the species has been defined broadly to include most other species of the subsection (e.g., A. Cronquist 1994).

    Solidago ×bartramiana Fernald [S. canadensis var. bartramiana (Fernald) Beaudry] is considered to be a hybrid between S. canadensis and S. uliginosa. Its growth form and array are more like those of the latter.

    Two sometimes difficult-to-distinguish varieties with greatly overlapping ranges are recognized.

    Description
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: achene, fruit, herb

    Canada goldenrod is an erect, rhizomatous perennial herb growing to
    heights of about 6 feet (1.8 m) and forming large clonal colonies
    [13,38,39]. Alternate leaves surround the central stem with the larger
    leaves occurring on the lower stem. Flowers are borne on numerous small
    flower heads. The fruit is an achene [30]. The rhizomes arise mostly
    from the base of the aerial stems, and are usually 2 to 5 inches (5-12
    cm) long [27,30,34].
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Plants 30–150(–200) cm; rhizomes short to long creeping. Stems 1–20+, erect, glabrate proximally or sparsely strigoso-villous, becoming more densely so distal to mid stem. Leaves: basal 0; proximal to mid cauline usually withering by flowering, tapering to sessile bases, blades narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 50–190 × 5–30 mm, margins sharply serrate, 3-nerved, apices acuminate, abaxial faces glabrous or more commonly hairy along main nerves, adaxial glabrous or slightly scabrous; mid to distal similar, 30–50(–120) × 8–12 mm, largest near mid stem, reduced distally, margins usually serrate or serrulate (teeth 3–8), sometimes entire proximal to arrays. Heads (70–)150–1300+ , secund, in secund pyramidal-paniculiform arrays (obscurely so and club-shaped thyrsiform in small plants or shoots with small arrays), branches divergent and recurved, branches and peduncles hairy. Peduncles 3–3.4 mm, bracteoles 0–3, linear-triangular. Involucres narrowly campanulate, 1.7–2.5(–3) mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, strongly unequal, acute to obtuse; outer lanceolate, inner linear-lanceolate. Ray florets (5–)8–14(–18); laminae 0.5–1.5 × 0.15–0.3(–0.5) mm. Disc florets (2–)3–6(–8); corollas 2.2–2.8(–3) mm, lobes 0.4–0.8(–1) mm. Cypselae (narrowly obconic) 1–1.5 mm (ribbed), sparsely strigose; pappi 1.8–2.2 mm.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Aster canadensis (Linnaeus) Kuntze

Habitat

    Habitat characteristics
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Canada goldenrod occurs on abandoned farmlands, infrequently grazed
    pastures, waste areas, and tallgrass prairies [38]. It is also found
    along roadsides and fence lines, in dry open fields, and in open woods
    or damp meadows that dry out every year [18]. It can tolerate a fairly
    wide range of soil fertility and texture conditions, but is typically
    found in fairly moist soils. It is not found on waterlogged sites and
    is found only rarely on very dry sites [31,38].
    Habitat: Cover Types
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

    More info for the term: cover

    Canada goldenrod occurs in most SAF Cover Types.
    Habitat: Ecosystem
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

    Canada goldenrod occurs in most ecosystems.
    Habitat: Plant Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

    Canada goldenrod occurs in most Kuchler Plant Associations.
    Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

    More info for the term: cover

    Canada goldenrod occurs in most SRM Cover Types.
    Key Plant Community Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: codominant, fern, forb, forest, herbaceous

    Canada goldenrod is sometimes dominant or codominant in disturbed forest
    understories [38]. It also may dominate or codominate Midwestern
    prairies [11]. Canada goldenrod is named as an herbaceous layer
    dominant in the following publication :

    Subalpine forb community types of the Bridger-Teton National Forest,
    Wyoming [14].

    Common understory associates of Canada goldenrod include red clover
    (Trifolium pratense), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia),
    Carolina nightshade (Solanum carolinense), Missouri goldenrod (Solidago
    missouriensis), small white ladyslipper (Cypripedium candidum), sticky
    geranium (Geranium viscosissimum), northern bedstraw (Galium boreale)
    and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) [6,9,16,36].

General Ecology

    Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: fire use, prescribed fire

    The Research Project Summary Understory recovery after low- and high-intensity
    fires in northern Idaho ponderosa pine forests
    provides information on
    prescribed fire use and postfire response of plant community species
    including Canada goldenrod.
    Fire Ecology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: fire regime, seed

    Canada goldenrod is generally enhanced by fire. It regenerates after
    fire from on-site soil-stored seed and underground rhizomes [25,40].

    FIRE REGIMES :
    Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
    species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
    "Find FIRE REGIMES".
    Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

    Hemicryptophyte
    Immediate Effect of Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Fire top-kills all aerial portions of Canada goldenrod [12,25].
    Life Form
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: forb

    Forb
    Plant Response to Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: cover, density, forest, frequency, prescribed fire, succession

    Canada goldenrod responds positively following low- to moderate-severity
    fires [23,27]. On a northwestern Minnesota prairie site, Canada
    goldenrod showed increased flowering following a prescribed spring fire
    [25]. In Wisconsin, prescribed fire had little effect on percent cover
    of Canada goldenrod but accounted for an increase in stem density [15].

    In a 53-year record of forest succession following fire in northern
    lower Michigan, Canada goldenrod had its greatest frequency index 24
    years after fire [28].

    In a study of plant succession in the Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii)
    brush zone after fire, Canada goldenrod showed a higher average number
    of plants on burned areas than on unburned areas, even after 18
    years [22].

    In May and June, fires in wetland margins of southeastern North Dakota
    were conducted for the purpose of increasing cover and forage for
    waterfowl. In the summer after fires and the next year, Canada goldenrod
    was either unchanged or reduced in cover as compared to control plots
    [24].
    Post-fire Regeneration
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: ground residual colonizer, herb, rhizome

    Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
    Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
    Regeneration Processes
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: rhizome, seed

    Canada goldenrod reproduces from seed and from creeping rhizomes
    [25,30]. The flowers are self-incompatible and are pollinated by
    insects. The seed is wind dispersed, with most seeds falling within
    6.5 feet (2.0 m) of the parent plant [38].

    Vegetative reproduction: Canada goldenrod reproduces from rhizomes after
    the first year of growth. One erect stem usually forms at a rhizome
    node. Each rhizome can produce a single shoot from its apical tip
    [2,38].
    Successional Status
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the term: shrubs

    Canada goldenrod is fairly shade intolerant although it occurs in
    sparsely wooded areas [38]. It is one of the first species to invade
    following disturbances including fire [23]. Canada goldenrod is
    eventually replaced by shrubs [32].

Cyclicity

    Phenology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    Canada goldenrod rhizomes are usually produced in late autumn and lie
    dormant during the winter months. Shoot extension occurs the following
    spring [38]. Canada goldenrod flowers from July through September,
    although the length of its flowering season varies with geographic
    location. Seeds are gradually dispersed during the autumn and winter
    [3,20].

Management

    Management considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: forest, herbaceous

    Canada goldenrod is not a serious weed in annual crops, and it seldom
    reaches densities that are a problem in rangelands. It does, however,
    invade poorly managed pastures and can be a pest in forest nurseries,
    perennial gardens, and crops [38,39].

    Canada goldenrod has an allelopathic effect on sugar maple (Acer
    saccharum) seedlings and reduces germination of herbaceous species,
    including itself [38].

    Response to herbicides: The response of Canada goldenrod to herbicides
    is affected by population age. In Quebec, a young population which had
    recently invaded a disturbed site was less susceptible to 2,4-D than an
    old, established population. Conversely, susceptibility to paraquat,
    simazine, and diuron declined with population age [38].

Benefits

    Cover Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: cover

    Canada goldenrod provides poor cover for elk, deer, pronghorn, and
    upland game birds [5].
    Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    White-tailed deer selectively graze Canada goldenrod, particularly in
    late summer and autumn after inflorescence development [17,38].
    Other uses and values
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Canada goldenrod is an important source of nectar for honeybees [38].
    Several shades of dye can be produced from Canada goldenrod [1].
    Palatability
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    In Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming, Canada goldenrod
    is rated good to fair in palatability for cattle, sheep, and horses [5].

Taxonomy

    Common Names
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Canada goldenrod
    Taxonomy
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: fern

    The currently accepted scientific name for Canada goldenrod is Solidago
    canadensis L. [10]. Five varieties are recognized [10]:

    Solidago canadensis var. canadensis L.
    Solidago canadensis var. gilvocanescens Rydb.
    S. c, var. salebrosa (Piper) M. E. Jones
    Solidago canadensis var. scarbra T. & G.
    Solidago canadensis var. hargeri Fern.

    Taxonomy within the genus Solidago is complicated due to great
    intraspecific variation and geographic clines in characteristics [38].