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The Laboulbeniales

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The Laboulbeniales is an order of ascomycete fungi, sharing that phylum with its more famous cousins -- yeast, morels, and cup fungi. There are over 2000 species in the order, and they are all ectoparasites of insects, spiders, and crustaceans (2, 3, 4). Commonly called "labdouls," these tiny fungi gather nutrients by digesting chitin from their hosts' shells, and beetles are a favorite (1, 2). An individual labdoul thallus looks like a short, flattened, yellowish hair sticking up off the surface of the insect's shell. Though infested insects often display many such structures, the fungs doesn't seem to do them much harm. Mating can transfer spores of the fungus from one insect to another. Ladybugs (or ladybirds) are commnly infected, and this is often where amateur naturalists first notice this interesting (if a little icky) fungus (3).

References

  • 1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laboulbeniales
  • 2. http://www.davidmoore.org.uk/21st_Century_Guidebook_to_Fungi_PLATINUM/Ch16_04.htm
  • 3. http://www.ladybird-survey.org/laboulbeniales.aspx
  • 4. http://www.esf.edu/Laboulbeniales/

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Maggie Whitson
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Whitson, Maggie. 2017. "Brief Summary: The Laboulbeniales" at Encyclopedia of Life ( eol.org )
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Laboulbeniales

provided by wikipedia EN

The Laboulbeniales is an order of Fungi within the class Laboulbeniomycetes. They are also known by the colloquial name, labouls. The labouls include over 2000 species of obligate insect ectoparasites, with cellular thalli. They typically do not kill their hosts, although they may impair host fitness if the level of infestation is high.

Laboulbeniales form individual thalli, and lack vegetative hyphae. A thallus is attached to its host by a dark-colored foot cell, through which the fungus penetrates the exoskeleton of its host to draw nutrition from the hemolymph. The external part of the thallus may form male structures (antheridia) or female structures (trichogynes and perithecia), or both. New infections are initiated when spores from the perithecia attach to a compatible insect host. Spore transmission can sometimes occur during insect copulation, which may account for the different site specificity sometimes observed in male and female hosts. These fungi do not grow apart from their hosts.

Foundational work on the Laboulbeniales was completed by the American mycologist Roland Thaxter (1858–1932), particularly in a five-volume illustrated series (1896–1931).

References

  • C.J. Alexopolous, Charles W. Mims, M. Blackwell, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed. (John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken NJ, 2004) ISBN 0-471-52229-5
  • R. Thaxter. 1896. Contribution towards a monograph of the Laboulbeniaceae. I. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 12: 187-429.
  • R. Thaxter. 1908. Contribution towards a monograph of the Laboulbeniaceae. II. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 13: 217-469.
  • R. Thaxter. 1924. Contribution towards a monograph of the Laboulbeniaceae. III. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 14: 309-426.
  • R. Thaxter. 1926. Contribution towards a monograph of the Laboulbeniaceae. IV. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 15: 427-580.
  • R. Thaxter. 1931. Contribution towards a monograph of the Laboulbeniaceae. V. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 16: 1-435.

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Laboulbeniales: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Laboulbeniales is an order of Fungi within the class Laboulbeniomycetes. They are also known by the colloquial name, labouls. The labouls include over 2000 species of obligate insect ectoparasites, with cellular thalli. They typically do not kill their hosts, although they may impair host fitness if the level of infestation is high.

Laboulbeniales form individual thalli, and lack vegetative hyphae. A thallus is attached to its host by a dark-colored foot cell, through which the fungus penetrates the exoskeleton of its host to draw nutrition from the hemolymph. The external part of the thallus may form male structures (antheridia) or female structures (trichogynes and perithecia), or both. New infections are initiated when spores from the perithecia attach to a compatible insect host. Spore transmission can sometimes occur during insect copulation, which may account for the different site specificity sometimes observed in male and female hosts. These fungi do not grow apart from their hosts.

Foundational work on the Laboulbeniales was completed by the American mycologist Roland Thaxter (1858–1932), particularly in a five-volume illustrated series (1896–1931).

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Wikipedia authors and editors
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wikipedia EN