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Cusk-eels

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The cusk-eel family, Ophidiidae, is a group of marine bony fishes in the order Ophidiiformes. The scientific name is from the Greek ophis meaning "snake", and refers to their eel-like appearance. True eels, however, diverged from other ray-finned fish during the Jurassic, while cusk-eels are part of the Percomorpha clade, along with tuna, perch, seahorses, and others. Unlike true eels of the order Anguilliformes, cusk-eels have ventral fins that are developed into a forked barbel-like organ below the mouth. In the true eels by contrast, the ventral fins are never well-developed and usually missing entirely.[1]

They are found in temperate and tropical oceans throughout the world. They live close to the sea bottom, ranging from shallow water to the hadal zone. One species, Abyssobrotula galatheae, was recorded at the bottom of the Puerto Rico trench, making it the deepest recorded fish at 8,370 m (27,460 ft).[2][3]

The largest species, Lamprogrammus shcherbachevi, grows up to 2 m (6.6 ft) in length, but most species are shorter than 1 m (3.3 ft). Unlike their close relatives, the viviparous brotulas of the family Bythitidae, they are egg-laying, and the larvae live amongst the plankton, relatively close to the surface.[2]

A few species are fished commercially, most notably the pink cusk-eel, Genypterus blacodes.

Genera

The cusk-eel family contains about 240 species, grouped into 50 genera:[4]
Subfamily Brotulinae

Subfamily Brotulotaenilinae

Subfamily Neobythitinae

Subfamily Ophidiinae

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). "Ophidiidae" in FishBase. February 2006 version.
  2. ^ a b Nielsen, Jørgen G. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 134. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
  3. ^ "What is the deepest-living fish?". Australian Museum. 23 December 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  4. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). "Ophidiidae" in FishBase. December 2008 version.

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Cusk-eels: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The cusk-eel family, Ophidiidae, is a group of marine bony fishes in the order Ophidiiformes. The scientific name is from the Greek ophis meaning "snake", and refers to their eel-like appearance. True eels, however, diverged from other ray-finned fish during the Jurassic, while cusk-eels are part of the Percomorpha clade, along with tuna, perch, seahorses, and others. Unlike true eels of the order Anguilliformes, cusk-eels have ventral fins that are developed into a forked barbel-like organ below the mouth. In the true eels by contrast, the ventral fins are never well-developed and usually missing entirely.

They are found in temperate and tropical oceans throughout the world. They live close to the sea bottom, ranging from shallow water to the hadal zone. One species, Abyssobrotula galatheae, was recorded at the bottom of the Puerto Rico trench, making it the deepest recorded fish at 8,370 m (27,460 ft).

The largest species, Lamprogrammus shcherbachevi, grows up to 2 m (6.6 ft) in length, but most species are shorter than 1 m (3.3 ft). Unlike their close relatives, the viviparous brotulas of the family Bythitidae, they are egg-laying, and the larvae live amongst the plankton, relatively close to the surface.

A few species are fished commercially, most notably the pink cusk-eel, Genypterus blacodes.

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Pearlfish

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Pearlfish are marine fish in the ray-finned fish family Carapidae. Pearlfishes inhabit the tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans at depths to 2,000 m (6,600 ft), along oceanic shelves and slopes. They are slender, elongated fish with no scales, translucent bodies, and dorsal fin rays which are shorter than their anal fin rays. Adults of most species live symbiotically inside various invertebrate hosts, and some live parasitically inside sea cucumbers. The larvae are free living.

Characteristics

Pearlfishes are slender, distinguished by having dorsal fin rays that are shorter than their anal fin rays. They have translucent, scaleless bodies reminiscent of eels. The largest pearlfish are about 50 cm (20 in) in length. They reproduce by laying oval-shaped eggs, about 1 mm in length.[2]

Ecology

Pearlfishes are unusual in that the adults of most species live inside various types of invertebrates. They typically live inside clams, starfish, or sea squirts, and are simply commensal, not harming their hosts. However, some species are known to be parasitic on sea cucumbers, eating their gonads and living in their anal pores. Pearlfish usually live alone, or in pairs.[3]

Regardless of the habits of the adults, the larvae of pearlfish are free-living among the plankton. Pearlfish larvae can be distinguished by the presence of a long filament in front of their dorsal fins, sometimes with various appendages attached.[2]

Genera

The genera are divided into three major groupings based on their level of symbiosis:

References

  1. ^ Richard van der Laan; William N. Eschmeyer & Ronald Fricke (2014). "Family-group names of Recent fishes". Zootaxa. 3882 (2): 001–230.
  2. ^ a b Nielsen, Jørgen G. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 133. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
  3. ^ The fish that lives in a sea cucumber anus, Australian Geographic, 8 August 2014
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Pearlfish: Brief Summary

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Pearlfish are marine fish in the ray-finned fish family Carapidae. Pearlfishes inhabit the tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans at depths to 2,000 m (6,600 ft), along oceanic shelves and slopes. They are slender, elongated fish with no scales, translucent bodies, and dorsal fin rays which are shorter than their anal fin rays. Adults of most species live symbiotically inside various invertebrate hosts, and some live parasitically inside sea cucumbers. The larvae are free living.

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Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Chiefly marine (rarely freshwater). Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Anus and anal fin origin usually posterior to pectoral fin tip. Anal fin rays usually of the same length or shorter than opposing dorsal fin rays. Scales present. One or more opercular spines in some. Supramaxillary present. Vexillum lacking in larvae. Pelvics usually present. About 1.5 m maximum length.
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bibliographic citation
MASDEA (1997).
Contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]