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Brief Summary

    Hemiptera Overview
    provided by EOL authors

    Order Hemiptera are known as the “true” bugs.A few of their common species include: cicadas, white flies, aphids, leafhoppers, shield bugs, pond skaters, and more.They are one of the largest insect orders with about 82, 000 species found throughout the world.They are usually about one millimeter to fifteen centimeters in length.Their front pair of wings are leathery and thick while their back pair of wings are membranous.Only a few species are wingless.They have slender rostrums (beaks), which are usually used to suck sap out of plants.They can be terrestrial or aquatic.They have long five-segmented antennae and compound eyes.They have scent glands that give off a foul odor when the insect feels threatened.They undergo incomplete metamorphosis, which means they start as an egg, have a nymph stage, and then molt several times to become an adult.They can be found in the fossil record as far back as the Early Permian.

    Hemiptera: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The Hemiptera /hɛˈmɪptərə/ or true bugs are an order of insects comprising some 50,000 to 80,000 species of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, and shield bugs. They range in size from 1 mm (0.04 in) to around 15 cm (6 in), and share a common arrangement of sucking mouthparts. The name "true bugs" is sometimes limited to the suborder Heteroptera. Many insects commonly known as "bugs" belong to other orders; for example, the lovebug is a fly, while the May bug and ladybug are beetles.

    Most hemipterans feed on plants, using their sucking and piercing mouthparts to extract plant sap. Some are parasitic while others are predators that feed on other insects or small invertebrates. They live in a wide variety of habitats, generally terrestrial, though some species are adapted to life in or on the surface of fresh water. Hemipterans are hemimetabolous, with young nymphs that somewhat resemble adults. Many aphids are capable of parthenogenesis, producing young from unfertilised eggs; this helps them to reproduce extremely rapidly in favourable conditions.

    Humans have interacted with the Hemiptera for millennia. Some species, including many aphids, are important agricultural pests, damaging crops by the direct action of sucking sap, but also harming them indirectly by being the vectors of serious viral diseases. Other species have been used for biological control of insect pests. Hemipterans have been cultivated for the extraction of the dyestuff cochineal (also known as carmine) and for shellac. The bed bug is a persistent parasite of humans. Cicadas have been used as food, and have appeared in literature from the Iliad in Ancient Greece.

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors

    Hemiptera is a diverse order of hemimetabolous insects. Members of this group are characterized by unique mouthparts modified to form an articulated beak (rostrum) for piercing and sucking liquid food. The Sternorrhyncha (aphids, whiteflies, plant lice, scale insects) and Auchenorrhyncha (cicadas, frog hoppers, leaf hoppers, plant hoppers, tree hoppers) feed almost exclusively on plant sap, while the Heteroptera (true bugs) contain many predators as well as plant feeders, scavengers, and parasites. TheColeorrhyncha (moss bugs), an obscure group from SouthAmerica, New Zealand, and Australia, probably feed on mosses.

    Some of the plant-feeding hemipterans are significant pests, and a number of species act as vectors of viruses, bacteria, and fungi causing plant diseases.

Comprehensive Description

Identification Resources

    New Zealand Hemiptera
    provided by EOL authors
    This website provides a range of resources dealing with the inventory, identification, geographic distribution and natural history of New Zealand Hemiptera (suborders Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha and Coleorrhyncha).
    Resources on New Zealand Hemiptera
    provided by EOL authors
    This website provides a range of resources dealing with the inventory, identification, geographic distribution and natural history of New Zealand Hemiptera (suborders Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha and Coleorrhyncha).