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Priacanthidae

provided by wikipedia EN

The Priacanthidae, the bigeyes, are a family of 18 species of marine fishes. "Catalufa" is an alternate common name for some members of the Priacanthidae. The etymology of the scientific name (prioo-, to bite + akantha, thorn) refers to the family's very rough, spined scales. The common name of "bigeye" refers to the member species' unusually large eyes, suited to their carnivorous and nocturnal lifestyles. Priacanthidae are typically colored bright red, but some have patterns in silver, dusky brown, or black. Most species reach a maximum total length of about 30 cm (12 in), although in a few species lengths of over 50 cm (20 in) are known.

Most members of this family are native to tropical and subtropical parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, but four species (Cookeolus japonicus, Heteropriacanthus cruentatus, Priacanthus arenatus, and Pristigenys alta) are found in the Atlantic. They tend to live near rock outcroppings or reefs, although a few are known to inhabit open waters. Many species are found in relatively deep waters, below depths reachable by normal scuba diving. Some species are fished for food.

The earliest identified Priacanthidae fossils date to the middle Eocene epoch of the lower Tertiary period, or roughly 40 to 50 million years ago.

Species

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Moontail bullseye, Priacanthus hamrur
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Short bigeye, Pristigenys alta
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Paeony bulleye (Priacanthus blochii) from the Red Sea
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Red bigeye (Priacanthus macracanthus) in a Philippine fish market

The 18 species in four genera are:

Timeline of genera

References

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Priacanthidae: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The Priacanthidae, the bigeyes, are a family of 18 species of marine fishes. "Catalufa" is an alternate common name for some members of the Priacanthidae. The etymology of the scientific name (prioo-, to bite + akantha, thorn) refers to the family's very rough, spined scales. The common name of "bigeye" refers to the member species' unusually large eyes, suited to their carnivorous and nocturnal lifestyles. Priacanthidae are typically colored bright red, but some have patterns in silver, dusky brown, or black. Most species reach a maximum total length of about 30 cm (12 in), although in a few species lengths of over 50 cm (20 in) are known.

Most members of this family are native to tropical and subtropical parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, but four species (Cookeolus japonicus, Heteropriacanthus cruentatus, Priacanthus arenatus, and Pristigenys alta) are found in the Atlantic. They tend to live near rock outcroppings or reefs, although a few are known to inhabit open waters. Many species are found in relatively deep waters, below depths reachable by normal scuba diving. Some species are fished for food.

The earliest identified Priacanthidae fossils date to the middle Eocene epoch of the lower Tertiary period, or roughly 40 to 50 million years ago.

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Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans. Eyes very big, with a brilliant reflective layer (tapida lucidum). Mouth big and superior (strongly oblique). Dorsal fin spines usually 10; soft rays 10-15. Three spines in anal fin; soft rays 9-16. Caudal fin slightly emarginate to rounded. Sixteen principal rays in caudal fin (2 unbranched). Inner rays of pelvic fin attached to body by a membrane. Scales very rough with integral spines, usually bright red in color. Epibenthic and generally associated with rock formations or coral reefs; a few species are often trawled in more open areas; usually carnivorous and nocturnal. Eggs, larvae and early juvenile stages are pelagic. Typically less than 30 cm TL, but largest species attains more than 50 cm maximum length.
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bibliographic citation
MASDEA (1997).
Contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]