dcsimg
509.9649142.130x130
Life » » Plants » » Cacti »

Echinopsis peruviana (Britton & Rose) Friedrich & G. D. Rowley

Brief Summary

    Echinopsis peruviana: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Echinopsis peruviana (syn. Trichocereus peruvianus), the Peruvian torch cactus, is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the western slope of the Andes in Peru, between about 2,000–3,000 m (6,600–9,800 ft) above sea level. It contains the psychoactive alkaloid mescaline as well as other alkaloids, although reported levels vary considerably and do not approach the concentrations found in Echinopsis pachanoi.

Comprehensive Description

    Echinopsis peruviana
    provided by wikipedia

    Echinopsis peruviana (syn. Trichocereus peruvianus), the Peruvian torch cactus, is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the western slope of the Andes in Peru, between about 2,000–3,000 m (6,600–9,800 ft) above sea level. It contains the psychoactive alkaloid mescaline as well as other alkaloids, although reported levels vary considerably and do not approach the concentrations found in Echinopsis pachanoi.

    Description

     src=
    This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

    The plant is bluish-green in color, with frosted stems, and 6-9 broadly rounded ribs; it has large, white flowers. It can grow up to 3–6 m (9.8–19.7 ft) tall, with stems up to 8–18 cm (3.1–7.1 in) in diameter; it is fully erect to begin with, but later possibly arching over, or even becoming prostrate. Groups of 6-8 honey-colored to brown rigid spines, up to 4 cm (1.6 in) in length, with most about 1 cm (0.39 in), are located at the nodes, which are evenly spaced along the ribs, up to approximately 2.5 cm (0.98 in) apart.

    Taxonomy

    Subspecies

    Echinopsis peruviana ssp. puquiensis (Rauh & Backeb.) Ostolaza[1]

    Varieties

    Some varieties, with scientifically invalid names, of Echinopsis peruviana are:

    • var. ancash (KK1688), San Marcos, Ancash, northwest Peru.
    • var. ayacuchensis (KK2151), southwestern Peru.
    • var. cuzcoensis (KK340), Huachac, Cuzco, southeastern Peru.
    • var. (H14192), Huntington, USA.
    • var. huancabamba, Piura, northwest Peru.
    • var. huancavelica (KK242a), west central Peru.
    • var. huancayo (KK338), west central Peru.
    • var. huaraz (KK2152), Ancash, northwestern Peru.
     src=
    KK242 vs. standard Peruvian torch cactus
    • var. matucana (KK242) Lima, central west Peru.
    • var. puquiensis (KK1689), Puquio, Apurímac Region, southwestern Peru.
    • var. Rio Lurin (KK2147), Rio Rimac, Lima, west central Peru.
    • var. tarmensis (KK2148), Tarma, Junín, west central Peru.
    • var. trujilloensis, Trujillo, La Libertad, northwestern Peru.

    Mescaline content

    Echinopsis peruviana is one of a number of Echinopsis species native to the Andes that have been reported to contain the psychoactive alkaloid mescaline. Others include E. pachanoi, E. lageniformis, E. scopulicola, E. santaensis and E. puquiensis. All those columnar species thought to be psychoactive have been called "San Pedro" in Spanish. Reported concentrations of mescaline vary widely, with causes suggested to include: taxonomic uncertainty leading to difficulties in identification; genetic differences between species and within populations; environmental factors, such as temperature and water availability, affecting plants during growth; and variations in laboratory techniques.[2]

    Some studies have reported no mescaline content in wild-harvested Peruvian specimens of E. peruviana,[3] and in plants grown in Europe.[4] In those studies that have compared different species and cultivars, when mescaline has been found, it has been at very much lower concentrations than in the highest yielding forms of other species; for example 0.24% of dry weight for E. peruviana KK242 compared to 4.7% for a strain of E. pachanoi on sale in traditional Peruvian shamans' markets, a factor of almost 20 times less.[2]

    Notes

    1. ^ "Echinopsis peruviana ssp. puquiensis". www.desert-tropicals.com. Retrieved 2008-02-23..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ a b Ogunbodede, Olabode; McCombs, Douglas; Trout, Keeper; Daley, Paul & Terry, Martin (2010). "New mescaline concentrations from 14 taxa/cultivars of Echinopsis spp. (Cactaceae) ("San Pedro") and their relevance to shamanic practice". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 131: 356–362. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.021. PMID 20637277.
    3. ^ Djerassi, Carl; Liu, L.H.; Farkas, E.; Lippman, A.E.; Lemin, A.J.; Geller, L.E.; McDonald, R.N. & Taylor, B.J. (1955). "Terpenoids. XI.1 Investigation of Nine Cactus Species. Isolation of Two New Triterpenes, Stellatogenin and Machaeric Acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 77 (5): 1200–1203. doi:10.1021/ja01610a033.
    4. ^ Agurell, S. (1969), "Cactaceae alkaloids. I", Lloydia, 32: 206–216

    References

     src=
    This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (January 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
    • James D. Mauseth, Roberto Kiesling, Cactus and Succulent Journal (US) 70 (1): 32-39
    • Michael S. Smith, The Narcotic and Hallucinogenic Cacti of the New World
    • William Rafti, "KK242 Notes and photos" ASIN: B001EHF2BU ISBN 0-9720525-5-0 Library of Congress Number: 2008902776