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Tonguefish

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A preserved tongue sole at a lab

Tonguefishes are flatfishes in the family Cynoglossidae. They are distinguished by the presence of a long hook on the snout overhanging the mouth, and the absence of pectoral fins. Their eyes are both on the left side of their bodies, which also lack a pelvic fin.[2] This family has three genera with a total of more than 140 species. The largest reaches a length of 66 cm (26 in), though most species only reach half that size or less.[3][4][5] They are found in tropical and subtropical oceans, mainly in shallow waters and estuaries, though a few species found in deep sea floors,[6] and a few in rivers.

Symphurus thermophilus lives congregating around "ponds" of sulphur at hydrothermal vents on the seafloor. No other flatfish is known from hydrothermal vents.[7] Scientists are unsure of the mechanism that allows the fish to survive and even thrive in such a hostile environment.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Cynoglossidae" in FishBase. October 2012 version.
  2. ^ Chapleau, Francois; Amaoka, Kunio (1998). Paxton, J. R.; Eschmeyer, W. N., eds. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 225. ISBN 0-12-547665-5..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2014). Species of Cynoglossus in FishBase. May 2014 version.
  4. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2014). Species of Paraplagusia in FishBase. May 2014 version.
  5. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2014). Species of Symphurus in FishBase. May 2014 version.
  6. ^ "Taxonomic status of three nominal species of Indo-Pacific symphurine tonguefishes (Symphurus: Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes)". ResearchGate. doi:10.1007/BF02678697. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
  7. ^ Munroe, Thomas A.; Hashimoto, Jun (1 August 2008). "A new Western Pacific Tonguefish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae): The first Pleuronectiform discovered at active Hydrothermal Vents" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1839: 43–59.
  8. ^ Amos, Jonathan (14 December 2006). "Fish dance on sulphur cauldrons". BBC News. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
Generally
larger
flatfishHalibutTrue (2 species)Other Plaice(4 species) TurbotTrue (1 species) Spiny (3 species)Other
Indonesian ocellated flounder


Three-eye flounder


Winter flounder


True turbot
Generally
smaller
flatfishSoleTrue
(135 species) American
(28 species) Tongue
(138 species)OtherOther
flounderLefteye
(158 species) Righteye
(101 species)
Large tooth
(115 species) Southern
(6 species)OtherMiscRelated
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Tonguefish: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

 src= A preserved tongue sole at a lab

Tonguefishes are flatfishes in the family Cynoglossidae. They are distinguished by the presence of a long hook on the snout overhanging the mouth, and the absence of pectoral fins. Their eyes are both on the left side of their bodies, which also lack a pelvic fin. This family has three genera with a total of more than 140 species. The largest reaches a length of 66 cm (26 in), though most species only reach half that size or less. They are found in tropical and subtropical oceans, mainly in shallow waters and estuaries, though a few species found in deep sea floors, and a few in rivers.

Symphurus thermophilus lives congregating around "ponds" of sulphur at hydrothermal vents on the seafloor. No other flatfish is known from hydrothermal vents. Scientists are unsure of the mechanism that allows the fish to survive and even thrive in such a hostile environment.

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Description

provided by World Register of Marine Species
Distribution: tropical and subtropical areas. Both eyes on left side of head; eyes very small with little interorbital space. Preopercle margin covered with skin. Asymmetrical mouth. Caudal fin pointed and confluent with dorsal and caudal fins. Right pelvic fin usually undeveloped. No pectoral fins. Dorsal fin origin at or in front of fixed (lower) eye. Vertebrae usually 9 or 10 + 33-66. To about 48 cm maximum length, usually below 30 cm. Tongue fishes are found in warm waters of all oceans (between 40° latitudes). Most species occur in shallow water or estuaries; many are commercially important.
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bibliographic citation
MASDEA (1997).
i18n: Contributor
Edward Vanden Berghe [email]