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Brief Summary

    Bibionidae: Brief Summary
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    The Bibionidae (March flies and lovebugs) are a family of flies (Diptera). About 650-700 species are known worldwide.

Comprehensive Description

    Bibionidae
    provided by wikipedia
    "March fly" redirects here. In Australia, this term refers to the horse-flies, an unrelated dipteran family.
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    The Bibionidae (March flies and lovebugs) are a family of flies (Diptera). About 650-700 species are known worldwide.

    Description

    For terms, see Morphology of Diptera.

    Bibionidae are medium-sized flies with a body length from 4.0 to 10.0 mm. The body is black, brown, or rusty, and thickset, with thick legs. The antennae are moniliform. The front tibiae bear large strong spurs or a circlet of spines. The tarsi are five-segmented and bear tarsal claws, pulvilli, and a well developed empodium. The wings have two basal cells (posterior basal wing cell and basal wing cell), but are without a discoidal wing cell. R4+5 is simple or branched; at most, only three branches of R developed. The leading edge wing veins are stronger than the weak veins of the trailing edge.

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    Bibionidae wing veins
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    Bibio pomonae: Note the stout body, short, thick antennae, the powerful femora and spined tibiae of the dichopotic female. The male is holoptic.

    Biology

    Bibionid larvae grow up in grassy areas and are herbivores and scavengers feeding on dead vegetation or living plant roots. Some species are found in compost.[9] Larvae are sometimes found in pockets in which sometimes up to 200 specimens have been counted. Adults of most Plecia and some species of Bibio do not eat, but subsist solely on the food taken in during the larval stage and drop steadily when in flight until they are a few inches above the ground, hovering slowly. Adult-stage bibionids are quite short-lived, and some species of Plecia (lovebugs) spend much of their adult lives copulating. The male and female (lovebugs) attach themselves at the rear of the abdomen and remain that way at all times, even in flight. Adults swarm after synchronous emergence, sometimes in enormous numbers.[10]


    Fossil record

    Bibionids have the most extensive fossil record of any dipteran family. Fossil bibionids are known questionably from the Jurassic, while some forms from the early part of the Upper Cretaceous look quite similar to modern species. Bibionid flies are very abundant among insect fossils from the Tertiary period, and a large number of species have been described, although often based on highly fragmentary material. Most fossil species are easily identified with extant genera. In particular, the genera Plecia and Bibio are abundant among Tertiary fossils. Fossils from Europe include a large number of specimens of the mainly tropical genus Plecia which is today entirely absent from Europe, demonstrating a warmer climate during the Tertiary.

    Economic importance

    Adults feed on the nectar of flowers of fruit trees and especially on flowers of umbelliferous plants; often swarming in mass flights in spring. Adults are important pollinators. Larvae play an important role in formation and accumulation of humus in soil. Some larvae are serious plant pests, especially of pasture land and other agronomic crops including cereal crops, vegetables, forage crops, and seedlings of many other plants.[9][11][10][12][13][14][15]

    References

    1. ^ Coquillett, Daniel W. (1904). "New North American Diptera". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 6: 166–192. Retrieved 13 August 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Edwards, Frederick W (1935). "New Neotropical Bibionnae (Diptera)". Stylops. 4: 19–24.
    3. ^ Hong, Y.; Wang, W.-I. (1987). "Miocene Emboptera [Embioptera] and Coleoptera (Insecta) of Shanwang, Shandong Province, China". Prof. Pap. Stratigr. Palaeontol. 17: 257–262.
    4. ^ Meigen, J. W. (1803). "Versuch einer neuen Gattungs-Eintheilung der europaischen zweiflugligen Insekten". Mag. Insektenkd. 2: 259–281.
    5. ^ Hardy, D. Elmo (1961). "Notes and descriptions of exotic Bibionidae". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 63: 81–99. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
    6. ^ Hong, Y. C. (2002). Amber insects of China. [iv]. Beijing: Beijing Science and Technology Press. pp. 653 pp., 48 pls.
    7. ^ Carpenter, Frank M. (1986). "Substitute names for some extinct genera of fossil insects" (PDF). Psyche. 92: 575–582. doi:10.1155/1985/62623. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
    8. ^ Rohdendorf, B. B. (1946). "The evolution of the wing and the phylogeny of Oligoneura (Diptera, Nematocera)". Trudy Paleontol. Inst. 13 (2): 1–108, 16 pls.
    9. ^ a b Hardy, D.E. McAlpine, J.F., ed. Bibionidae. in: Manual of Nearctic Diptera (PDF). Ottawa: Agriculture Canada. pp. 217–222. ISBN 0-660-10731-7. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
    10. ^ a b Freeman, Paul; Lane, Richard P. (1985). "Bibionid and Scatopsid flies, Diptera: Bibionidae & Scatopsidae" (Print). Handbooks for the identification of British insects. 9 (7). London: Royal Entomological Society of London: 74.
    11. ^ Darvas, B., Skuhravá, M., Andersen, A., 2000, Agricultural dipteran pests of the Palaearctic Region. In: Papp, L., Darvas, B. (Eds.). Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera with Special Reference to Flies of Economic Importance. Science Herald, Budapest, 565-649.
    12. ^ Bollow, H. 1954. Die Landwirtschaftlich wichtigen Haarmticken. Z. PflBau PflSchutz 5 (49): 197-232.
    13. ^ Maier-Bode, [-]. 1936. Die Gartenhaarmticke (Bibio hortulanus) als Roggen-schiidling. NachrBl. dt. PflSchutzdienst., Berl. l6: 10.
    14. ^ Spitzer, K. 1966. An example of severe damage to planted potatoes by the garden March fly (Bibio hortulanus L.) [in Czeckoslovakian]. Ochr. Rost. 2(39):81-82.
    15. ^ Strickland, E. H. (1916). "The March fly (Bibio abbreviatus) in grain fields and as a pest of celery". Agric. Gaz. Can. 3: 600–603.