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Cinnamon

Cinnamomum verum J. Presl

Brief Summary

    Cinnamomum verum: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Cinnamomum verum, called true cinnamon tree or Ceylon cinnamon tree is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae, native to Sri Lanka. Among other species, its inner bark is used to make cinnamon.

    The old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name, Ceylon. Sri Lanka still produces 80–90% of the world's supply of Cinnamomum verum, which is also cultivated on a commercial scale in the Seychelles and Madagascar.

    Cinnamomum verum trees are 10–15 metres (30–50 feet) tall. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape and 7–18 cm (3–7 inches) long. The flowers, which are arranged in panicles, have a greenish color and a distinct odor. The fruit is a purple 1-cm drupe containing a single seed.[citation needed]

    Brief Summary
    provided by EOL authors
    Cinnamomum verum (formerly C. zeylanicum), “true cinnamon” or Sri Lanka or Ceylon cinnamon, is a small evergreen tropical tree in the Lauraceae (laurel family) that originated in Sri Lanka and is one of several Cinnamomum species that produce the commercially important spice known as cinnamon. Although cassia (C. aromaticum), which is less expensive and has a stronger flavor, is often marketed as “cinnamon,” C. verum is generally considered to have a more delicate flavor that is more suitable for desserts. The names “cinnamon” and “cassia” cause considerable confusion, as they are often used interchangeably. In the U.S., the spice produced from the dried, ground bark of any of these species is referred to as “cinnamon,” without distinguishing among species. In addition, “cinnamon” may also refer to the spice obtained from the aromatic bark of an unrelated species, Canella winterana (in the Canellaceae). When the spice is sold in bark form, rather than ground, C. verum can be distinguished from C. aromaticum because it comes in tight rolls (quills) rather than in looser flakes with curled edges. It can be distinguished from the related Indonesian cinnamon (C. burmanii) by the quills having many soft layers, which can easily be ground in a coffee grinder, as opposed neat quills composed of a single extremely hard layer. The C. verum tree grows to around 10 m (30 ft), and has leathery leaves, usually opposite, that are lanceolate to ovate, 11 to 16 cm (4.5 to 6.25 in) long, with pointed tips. The inconspicuous yellow flowers, which are tubular with 6 lobes, grow in panicles (clusters) that are as long as the leaves. The fruit is a small, fleshy berry, 1 to 1.5 cm (0.25 to 0.5 in) long, that ripens to black, partly surrounded by a cup-like perianth (developed from the outer parts of the flower). The spice form of cinnamon is obtained by removing the outer bark of the tree, and scraping from it the inner bark, which is dried and ground into power. Cultivated trees may also be coppiced (cut back to encourage shoot development), so that the coppiced shoots can be harvested. Cinnamon oil is steam distilled from the leaves and twigs. Cinnamon from various species has been used as a spice since ancient times (noted in Sanskrit texts and in the Bible, as well as in accounts by Herodotus and Pliny, although it can be difficult to ascertain which particular species is referred to). It is widely used to flavor baked goods, puddings and other desserts, and candies, as well as soups and stews, curries, meat and poultry dishes, and pickles. Cinnamon is also used to flavor beverages, including teas and mulled wine. FAO estimates that total commercial production of all forms of cinnamon (derived from several species of Cinnamomum, including C. aromaticum, as well as canella (Canella winterana) was 155,000 metric tons, harvested from 186,000 hectares. China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam together produced around 98% of the world’s total. (Bailey et al. 1976, FAO 2012, Flora of China 2012, Hedrick 1919, van Wyk 2005.)

Comprehensive Description

    Cinnamomum verum
    provided by wikipedia

    Cinnamomum verum,[2] called true cinnamon tree or Ceylon cinnamon tree is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae, native to Sri Lanka.[3] Among other species, its inner bark is used to make cinnamon.

    The old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name, Ceylon.[4] Sri Lanka still produces 80–90% of the world's supply of Cinnamomum verum, which is also cultivated on a commercial scale in the Seychelles and Madagascar.[5]

    Cinnamomum verum trees are 10–15 metres (30–50 feet) tall. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape and 7–18 cm (3–7 inches) long. The flowers, which are arranged in panicles, have a greenish color and a distinct odor. The fruit is a purple 1-cm drupe containing a single seed.[citation needed]

    Cultivars

    There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum verum based on the taste of bark:[6]

    • Type 1Sinhala: Pani Kurundu (පැණි කුරුඳු), Pat Kurundu (පත් කුරුඳු) or Mapat Kurundu (මාපත් කුරුඳු)
    • Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu (නාග කුරුඳු)
    • Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu (පැණි මිරිස් කුරුඳු)
    • Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu (වැලි කුරුඳු)
    • Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu (සෙවල කුරුඳු)
    • Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu (කහට කුරුඳු)
    • Type 7 Sinhala: Peiris Kurundu (පීරිස් කුරුඳු)

    Gallery

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      Leaves of the Cinnamomum verum plant

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      Leaves of the Cinnamomum verum plant

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      Bark, powder and dried flowers from Cinnamomum verum plant

    References

    1. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-2721692
    2. ^ "NCBI - Cinnamomum verum". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 4 October 2016..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    3. ^ "Cinnamon". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. (species Cinnamomum zeylanicum), bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), the neighboring Malabar coast of India, and Myanmar (Burma), and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor.
    4. ^ "In pictures: Sri Lanka's spice of life". BBC News.
    5. ^ Iqbal, Mohammed (1993). "International trade in non-wood forest products: An overview". FO: Misc/93/11 - Working Paper. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
    6. ^ http://www.exportagridept.gov.lk/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=128&Itemid=159&lang=en