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Biology
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The flowers of this perennial plant appear from June to August (2), and have been widely used for many years for a variety of purposes; they are known to have certain medicinal properties and are used as an antispasmodic and an anti-inflammatory, and the essential oil is used in aromatherapy as a soothing agent (5). Chamomile flowers have also been used to make herbal teas and beers, and are known to repel insects when both living and dried (5). Chamomile lawns have been popular in the past, and 'chamomile seats' were a common feature of Elizabethan herb gardens (3).
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chamaemelum_nobile/Biology
Conservation
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Chamomile is included in Plantlife's 'Back from the Brink' programme.
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Description
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Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) is a low-growing plant with finely divided leaves, which are arranged alternately on the stem (2). The daisy-like flowers have a yellow central disk framed with silvery-white petals (2). When crushed, the plant gives off a scent akin to that of apples or bubblegum (3), and this trait led to the origin of the common name; 'chamaimelon' means 'ground apple' (4).
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Habitat
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The main natural habitats of this species are grazed grasslands on cliff-tops, heaths, commons and village greens with moderately acid clay soils (6). At present it thrives in a number of cricket pitches, where mowing and rolling create ideal short turf conditions (3).
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chamaemelum_nobile/Habitat
Range
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This plant was once found throughout most of England, but has always been more common towards the south (3). It is now unfortunately scarce in the UK, and is most common in the extreme south-west and Hampshire (3), with remaining strongholds in the Lizard Point Cornwall, Dartmoor and the New Forest (3). Elsewhere the species occurs naturally in Western Europe, North Africa and the Azores and as a garden escapee in North America (2).
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Status
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Classified as Nationally Scarce in Great Britain (1).
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chamaemelum_nobile/Status
Threats
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The main cause of the drastic decline of this once widespread species has been the cessation of grazing in many areas, particularly on village commons (3).
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Description
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Perennials, 10–20(–30) cm across. Stems mostly prostrate (much branched, often forming mats), ± strigoso-sericeous to villous. Leaves sessile; blades oblong, 1–3(–5) cm, 2–3-pinnately lobed. Involucres 4–6 × 7–10+ mm. Phyllaries: margins and apices greenish or lacking pigment, abaxial faces ± villous. Paleae 3–4+ mm, margins greenish or lacking pigment. Ray florets usually 13–21+, rarely 0; laminae 7–10+ mm. Disc corollas 2–3 mm. Cypselae 1–1.5 mm. 2n = 18.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 19: 496, 497 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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228383
Description
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A perennial, ± pubescent, 10 – 30 cm tall, pleasantly aromatic herb with decumbent or ascending shoots from the base. Leaves sessile, oblong, 1.5 – 5 cm long, 2-3-pinnatisect into linear-subulate or filiform, ± hairy, mucronate ultimate segments. Peduncles 2 – 4 cm long, unthickened in fruit. Capitula radiate, 1.8 – 2.5 cm across. Phyllaries oblong, 3 – 5 mm long, 1.5 – 2 mm wide, obtuse with broad scarious margins, sparsely hairy on midrib. Receptacle conical, chaffy all over, paleae oblong, ± keeled, obtuse. Ray-florets female, fertile, ligules 7 – 10 mm long, white, occasionally absent. Disc-florets yellow, as long as paleae, corolla tube basally swollen, hairy. Cypselas obovoid, 1 – 1.5 mm long, smooth, with 3 faint striae on inner side, bald.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 207: 24 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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ID
56078
Distribution
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Distribution: Europe, N Africa, W. Asia; introduced in N America and elsewhere.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 207: 24 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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ID
56082
Flower/Fruit
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Fl. Per.: June-July.
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Flora of Pakistan Vol. 207: 24 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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56079
Habitat
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“Scotch or low chamomile” is cultivated in Kashmir in flower beds and borders (R.R.Stewart, 1972).
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 207: 24 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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ID
56081
Synonym
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Anthemis nobilis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 894. 1753
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Flora of North America Vol. 19: 496, 497 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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225617
Synonym
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Anthemis nobilis L., Sp. Pl. 894. 1753; L.H.Bailey, Man. Cult. Pl. (Rev. ed.) 990. 1949; R. R. Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 714. 1972.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of Pakistan Vol. 207: 24 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of Pakistan @ eFloras.org
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S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser
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eFloras.org
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ID
56077
Chamaemelum nobile
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"Ground apple" redirects here. For the plant known as "Peruvian ground apple", see Yacón.

Chamaemelum nobile commonly known as chamomile (also spelled camomile), Roman chamomile,[2] English chamomile,[2] garden chamomile, ground apple, low chamomile, mother's daisy or whig plant,[3] is a low perennial plant found in dry fields and around gardens and cultivated grounds in Europe, North America, and in Argentina. C. nobile is, along with Matricaria chamomilla, an important source of the herbal product known as chamomile.[2]

Description

Chamaemelum nobile has daisy-like white flowers and procumbent stems; the leaves are alternate, bipinnate, finely dissected, and downy to glabrous. The solitary, terminal flowerheads, rising 20–30 cm (8–12 in) above the ground, consist of prominent yellow disk flowers and silver-white ray flowers. The flowering time in the Northern Hemisphere is June and July, and its fragrance is sweet, crisp, fruity and herbaceous.[4]

Etymology

The word chamomile, and the genus name Chamaemelum come from the Greek χαμαίμηλον (chamaimēlon), "earth-apple",[5] from χαμαί (chamai), "on the ground" + μήλον (mēlon), "apple", so-called because of the apple-like scent of the plant. (Note: The "ch-" spelling is used especially in science and pharmacology.)

Non-medicinal use

 src=
Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) essential oil in clear glass vial
Main article: Chamomile

The plant is used to flavor foods, in herbal teas, perfumes, and cosmetics.[4] It is used to make a rinse for blonde hair, and is popular in aromatherapy; its practitioners believe it to be a calming agent to reduce stress and aid in sleep.

It can also be used to create a fragrant camomile lawn. A chamomile lawn needs light soil, adequate moisture, and sun in order to thrive. Each square meter contains 83-100 plants. The lawn is only suitable to light foot traffic or in places where mower access is difficult.[6]

Medicinal use

It can be applied directly to the skin for pain and swelling, but there is no good evidence it has any beneficial effect.[7]

The appropriate dose of Roman chamomile depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough information to determine an appropriate range of doses for Roman chamomile. It is not recommended to take orally during pregnancy as it can cause uterine contractions and miscarriage.[8] It is not known if Roman chamomile interacts with any medications. There are no known interactions with other herbs and supplements. There are no known interactions with foods.[7]

Other names

Anthémis, Anthémis Odorante, Anthemis nobilis, Babuna Ke Phool, Camomille d’Anjou, Camomille Noble, Camomille Romaine, Chamaemelum nobile, Chamomilla, Chamomile, Chamomillae Ramane Flos, English Chamomile, Fleur de Camomille Romaine, Flores Anthemidis, Garden Chamomile, Grosse Kamille, Ground Apple, Huile Essentielle de Camomille Romaine, Low Chamomile, Manzanilla, Manzanilla Romana, Ormenis nobilis, Roman Chamomile Essential Oil, Romische Kamille, Sweet Chamomile, Whig Plant.[7]

References

  1. ^ 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen
  2. ^ a b c "German Chamomile". University of Maryland Medical Center. 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2012..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ T. K. Lim Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 7, Flowers at Google Books
  4. ^ a b Gualtiero Simonetti (1990). Stanley Schuler, ed. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Herbs and Spices. Simon & Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-671-73489-X.
  5. ^ Chamaimelon, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  6. ^ "Camomile lawn". rhs.org. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  7. ^ a b c "Roman chamomile: MedlinePlus Supplements". medlineplus.gov. US National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 3 August 2017. src= This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  8. ^ "Roman chamomile". Medline Plus Supplements. National Institutes of Health. 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2012. src= This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

 src= This article incorporates public domain material from the U.S. National Cancer Institute document "Dictionary of Cancer Terms".

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Chamaemelum nobile: Brief Summary
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"Ground apple" redirects here. For the plant known as "Peruvian ground apple", see Yacón.

Chamaemelum nobile commonly known as chamomile (also spelled camomile), Roman chamomile, English chamomile, garden chamomile, ground apple, low chamomile, mother's daisy or whig plant, is a low perennial plant found in dry fields and around gardens and cultivated grounds in Europe, North America, and in Argentina. C. nobile is, along with Matricaria chamomilla, an important source of the herbal product known as chamomile.

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b780ca8b3ed7ebe2d087652791c10ebf