dcsimg
8.8595840572.130x130
Life » » Plants » » Waterlilies »

Foxnut

Euryale ferox Salisb.

Brief Summary

    Euryale ferox: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia
    For other uses, see Euryale (disambiguation).

     src= Surface-floating leaf of Euryale ferox  src= A pond of cultivated Euryale in northern India

    Euryale ferox (common names, fox nut, foxnut, gorgon nut or makhana) is the only extant species in the genus Euryale. It is a flowering plant classified in the water lily family, Nymphaeaceae, although it is occasionally regarded as a distinct family, Euryalaceae. Unlike other water lilies, the pollen grains of Euryale have three nuclei.

Comprehensive Description

    Euryale ferox
    provided by wikipedia
    For other uses, see Euryale (disambiguation).

     src=
    Surface-floating leaf of Euryale ferox
     src=
    A pond of cultivated Euryale in northern India

    Euryale ferox (common names, fox nut, foxnut, gorgon nut or makhana) is the only extant species in the genus Euryale. It is a flowering plant classified in the water lily family, Nymphaeaceae, although it is occasionally regarded as a distinct family, Euryalaceae. Unlike other water lilies, the pollen grains of Euryale have three nuclei.[1]

    Etymology

    The name Euryale comes from the mythical Greek Gorgon by the same name.[2]

    Growth

    Euryale is an perennial plant native to eastern Asia, and is found from India - Bihar katihar (local name Makhana) and Loktak Lake Manipur (local name Thangzing) - to Korea and Japan, as well as parts of eastern Russia.[3] It grows in water, producing bright purple flowers. The leaves are large and round, often more than a meter (3 feet) across, with a leaf stalk attached in the center of the lower surface. The underside of the leaf is purplish, while the upper surface is green. The leaves have a quilted texture, although the stems, flowers, and leaves which float on the surface are covered in sharp prickles. Other leaves are submerged. In India, Euryale normally grows in ponds, wetlands etc. Recently the Indian Council of Agricultural Research have developed a technique for the field cultivation of Euryale.

    Uses

    It is eaten in Manipur. It is cooked along with Allium tuberosum, garlic chives, Oriental garlic, Asian chives, Chinese chives, Chinese leek, bori etc. In Manipur, E. ferox is a local delicacy.

    Culinary

    The plant produces starchy white seeds that are edible. The plant is cultivated for its seeds[3] in lowland ponds in India, China, and Japan. The Chinese have cultivated the plant for over 3000 years.[4] More than 96,000 hectares of Bihar, India, were set aside for cultivation of Euryale in 1990-1991.[2] The plant grows best in locations with hot, dry summers and cold winters. Seeds are collected in the late summer and early autumn, and may be eaten raw or cooked.

    In India, in the northern (Punjab) and western parts of the country, Euryale ferox seeds are often roasted or fried, which causes them to pop like popcorn. These are then eaten, often with a sprinkling of oil and spices. In Indian plains along Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Bihar (Mithila culture of Mithilanchal), makhana is an auspicious ingredient in offerings to the deities during Yajna, Pujana, and festivals. In day-to-day life it is used in cooking, specially to make a porridge/pudding called Kheer of makhana or 'makhaanak kheer' or 'makhaanak payasam' and Makhane Ka Rayta (Makhana Yougurt Blend). Makhhaan along with Paan (betel leaf) and Maachch (fish) is symbolic to Maithil culture.

    Evidence from archaeobotany indicates that Euryale ferox was a frequently collected wild food source during the Neolithic period in the Yangtze region, with large numbers of finds coming from the sites of Kuahuqiao, Hemudu, and Tianluoshan.[5] The earliest recorded use of E. ferox was found in Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel, among artifacts of the Acheulean culture 790-750,000 years ago.[6]

    Traditional medicine

    The seeds of foxnut are used in Ayurveda preparations. In Chinese, the plant is called qiàn shí (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ).[3] Its edible seeds are used in traditional Chinese medicine, where they are often cooked in soups along with other ingredients.[7]

    References

    1. ^ Cronquist, Arthur (1981). An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-231-03880-1..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ a b Lariushin, Boriss (2012). Solanaceae family. [S.l.: s.n.] p. 17. ISBN 9781478191834.
    3. ^ a b c Flora of China, "Euryale ferox"
    4. ^ Mabberley, D. J. (1987). The Plant-book. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-34060-8.
    5. ^ Fuller, D. Q.; Qin, L; Zheng, Y; Zhao, Z; Chen, X; Hosoya, LA; Sun, GP; et al. (2009). "The Domestication Process and Domestication Rate in Rice: Spikelet bases from the Lower Yangtze". Science. 323 (5921): 1607–1610. doi:10.1126/science.1166605. PMID 19299619.
    6. ^ Goren - Inbarand, N.; Melamed, Y.; Zohar, I.; Akhilesh, K.; Pappu, S. (2014-10-11). "Beneath Still Waters - Multistage Aquatic Exploitation of Euryale ferox (Salisb.) during the Acheulian". Internet Archaeology (37). doi:10.11141/ia.37.1. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
    7. ^ Fox Nut (qian shi)

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    This species is cultivated for its starchy seeds.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Submerged leaves not prickly; leaf blade sagittate or elliptic, 4--10 cm, base deeply cordate. Floating leaves prickly on petioles and along veins; leaf blade abaxially dark purple and adaxially green, to 1.3(--2.7) m in diam., subleathery, abaxially sparsely pubescent, adaxially glabrous, base emarginate or sinuate; veins abaxially strongly ribbed; primary veins prickly on both surfaces. Flower to 5 cm in diam. Peduncle stout, densely prickly. Sepals triangular-ovate, 1--1.5(--3) cm, abaxially dense-ly prickly; prickles retrorse. Petals outer purple-violet fading to inner white, oblong-lanceolate, 1(--2.5) cm. Ovary 7--16-loculed, each locule with 6--8 or more ovules. Fruit dark purple, globose, 5--10 cm in diam., spongy, densely prickly. Seeds black, 8 to many, globose, 6--10 mm in diam.; testa thick, rigid. Fl. Jun--Aug.

Habitat

    Habitat & Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Lakes, ponds. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bangladesh, India, Japan, Kashmir, Korea, Russia (Far East)].