dcsimg
Image of copoasu
Creatures » » Plants » » Mallow or hibiscus family »

Copoasu

Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Sprengel) Schumann

Cupuaçu
provided by wikipedia EN

CUSYST11.JPG

Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), also spelled cupuassu, cupuazú, cupu assu, and copoasu, is a tropical rainforest tree related to cacao.[1] Common throughout the Amazon basin, it is widely cultivated in the jungles of Colombia, Bolivia and Peru and in the north of Brazil, with the largest production in Pará, followed by Amazonas, Rondônia and Acre.[1] The pulp of the cupuaçu fruit is widely consumed throughout Central and South America, and is used to make ice creams, snack bars, and other value added products.[2]

Plant

Cupuaçu trees usually range from 5–15 m (16–49 ft) in height, though some can reach 20 m (66 ft). They have brown bark, and the leaves range from 25–35 cm (9.8–13.8 in) long and 6–10 cm (2.4–3.9 in) across, with 9 or 10 pairs of veins. As they mature, the leaves change from pink-tinted to green, and eventually they begin bearing fruit.

Flower

 src=
Cupuacu flower

Flowers of cupuaçu are structurally complex, and require pollination from biotic vectors.[3] The majority of cupuaçu trees are self-incompatible, which can result in decreased pollination levels, and consequently, a decrease in fruit yields.[3] Pollination can also be negatively affected by environmental conditions. Pollinators, which include chrysomelid weevils and stingless bees, are unable to fly between flowers in heavy rains.[3]

Fruit

 src=
Cupuaçu fruit opened
 src=
Cupuaçu butter (manteiga de cupuaçu)

The white pulp of the cupuaçu has an odour described as a mix of chocolate and pineapple and is frequently used in desserts, juices and sweets.[1] The juice tastes primarily like a pear, with a hint of banana.

Cupuaçu is generally harvested from the ground once they have naturally fallen from the tree. It can be difficult to determine peak ripeness because there is no noticeable external color change in the fruit. However studies have shown that in Western Colombian Amazon conditions, fruits generally reach full maturity within 117 days after fruit set.[4]

Cultivation

Cupuaçu is most commonly propagated from seed, but grafting and rooted cuttings are also used.[5]

Cupuaçu trees are often incorporated in agroforestry systems throughout the Amazon due to their high tolerance of infertile soils, which are predominate in the Amazon region.[5]

Pests and diseases

Witches broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa)is the most prominent disease that affects cupuaçu trees.[6] It impacts the entire tree and can result in significant loss of yields, as well as tree death if left untreated. Regular pruning is recommended to reduce the severity of this disease in cupuaçu plantings.[6]

Cupuaçu supports the butterfly herbivore, "lagarta verde", Macrosoma tipulata (Hedylidae), which can be a defoliator.[7]

Phytochemicals

Cupuaçu flavors derive from its phytochemicals, such as tannins, glycosides, theograndins, catechins, quercetin, kaempferol and isoscutellarein.[8] It also contains caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline as found in cacao, although with much lower content of caffeine.[9]

Cupuaçu butter

Cupuaçu butter is a triglyceride composed of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, giving the butter a low melting point (approximately 30 °C) and texture of a soft solid, lending its use as a confectionery resembling white chocolate.[1] Main fatty acid components of cupuaçu butter are stearic acid (38%), oleic acid (38%), palmitic acid (11%) and arachidic acid (7%).[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Giacometti DC (1998). "Cupuaçu. In: Neglected Crops: 1492 from a Different Perspective, J.E. Hernándo Bermejo and J. León (eds.). Plant Production and Protection Series No. 26. FAO, Rome, Italy. p. 205-209". Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, W. Lafayette, IN, USA..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Prazeres, Isadora (2017). "Elaboration and characterization of snack bars made with ingredients from the Amazon". Acta Amazonica. 47: 103–110.
  3. ^ a b c Venturieri, Giorgini (2010). "Flowering levels, harvest season and yields of Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum)". Acta Amazonica.
  4. ^ Hernandez, Claudia (March 1, 2012). "Growth and development of the cupuacu fruit (Theobroma grandiflorum [Wiild. Ex Spreng.] Schum.) in the western colombian Amazon". Agronomia Colombiana. 30: 95–102.
  5. ^ a b Schroth, G. (2000). "Growth, Yield and Mineral Nutrition of Cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum) in Two Multi-Strata Agroforestry Systems on a Ferralitic Amazonian Upland Soil at Four Fertilization Levels". Journal of Applied Botany.
  6. ^ a b Alves, Rafael (2009). "Evolution of witch's broom disease and evaluation of resistance in Cupuassu progenies". Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura. 31 – via SciElo.
  7. ^ Lourido, G.; Silva, N. M.; Motta, C. (2007). "Parâmetros Biológicos e Injúrias de Macrosoma tipulata Hübner (Lepidoptera: Hedylidae), em Cupuaçuzeiro [Theobroma grandiflorum (Wild ex Spreng Schum)] no Amazonas" [Biological parameters and damage by Macrosoma tipulata Hübner (Lepidoptera: Hedylidae), in Cupuaçu tree [Theobroma grandiflorum (Wild ex Spreng Schum)] in Amazonas, Brazil] (PDF). Neotropical Entomology (in Portuguese). 36 (1): 102–106. doi:10.1590/S1519-566X2007000100012. PMID 17420867.
  8. ^ Yang, H.; Protiva, P.; Cui, B.; Ma, C.; Baggett, S.; Hequet, V.; Mori, S.; Weinstein, I. B.; Kennelly, E. J. (2003). "New bioactive polyphenols from Theobroma grandiflorum ("cupuaçu")". Journal of Natural Products. 66 (11): 1501–1504. doi:10.1021/np034002j. PMID 14640528.
  9. ^ Lo Coco F, Lanuzza F, Micali G, Cappellano G (2007). "Determination of theobromine, theophylline, and caffeine in by-products of cupuaçu and cacao seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography". J Chromatogr Sci. 45 (5): 273–5. PMID 17555636.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  10. ^ Cohen, K. de O. & Jackix, M. de N. H. (2009). "Características químicas e física da gordura de cupuaçu e da manteiga de cacau" (PDF). Documentos / Embrapa Cerrados (in Portuguese) (269): 1–22.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
 title=
license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
8b4a58e96f771626ef378f7d54ce3b82
Cupuaçu: Brief Summary
provided by wikipedia EN

CUSYST11.JPG

Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), also spelled cupuassu, cupuazú, cupu assu, and copoasu, is a tropical rainforest tree related to cacao. Common throughout the Amazon basin, it is widely cultivated in the jungles of Colombia, Bolivia and Peru and in the north of Brazil, with the largest production in Pará, followed by Amazonas, Rondônia and Acre. The pulp of the cupuaçu fruit is widely consumed throughout Central and South America, and is used to make ice creams, snack bars, and other value added products.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
partner site
wikipedia EN
ID
471f4b4875dc98723dbbf33505cf36bb