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Clusiidae
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Clusia tigrina engaged in lekking behaviour

Clusiidae or "druid flies" is a family of small (~ 3.5 mm), thin, yellow to black acalyptrate flies with a characteristic antenna (The second segment of the antennae has a triangular projection over the third segment when viewed from the outside) and with the wing usually partially infuscated. They have a cylindrical body. The head is round, the vertical plate reaches the anterior margin of the frons and the vibrissae on the head are large. The costa is interrupted near subcosta and the latter developed throughout length. Larvae are found in the bark of trees, the flies on trunks.The larvae are notable for their ability to jump. Males of many species in the subfamily Clusiodinae have been observed while engaged in lekking behaviour. There are hundreds of species in 14 genera found in all the Ecoregions, although most species occur in tropical regions. The type genus is Clusia Haliday, 1838.

Genera

Identification

  • Lonsdale, O., Cheung, D.K.B. & Marshall, S.A. 2011. Key to the World genera and North American species of Clusiidae (Diptera: Schizophora). Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification No. 14, 3 May 2011, available online at http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/lcm_14/lcm_14.html, doi: 10.3752/cjai.2011.14
  • Przemysław Trojan, 1962 Odiniidae, Clusiidae, Anthomyzidae, Opomyzidae, Tethinidae in (series) Klucze do oznaczania owadów Polski, 28,54/58; Muchowki = Diptera, 54/58 Publisher Warszawa : Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (in Polish)

References

  1. ^ a b c Lonsdale, Owen; Marshall, Stephen A. (2006). "Redefinition of the Clusiinae and Clusiodinae, description of the new subfamily Sobarocephalinae, revision of the genus Chaetoclusia and a description of Procerosoma gen. n. (Diptera: Clusiidae)" (PDF Adobe Acrobat). European Journal of Entomology. Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Entomological Society. 103 (1): 163–182. doi:10.14411/eje.2006.020. Retrieved 2009-11-20..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lonsdale, O; Cheung, D.K.B.; Marshall, S.A. (14 May 2011). "Key to the World genera and North American species of Clusiidae (Diptera: Schizophora)". Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  3. ^ a b Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2008). "Synonymy within Clusia and description of the new genus Melanoclusia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiinae)". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Entomological Society of America. 101 (2): 327–330. doi:10.1603/0013-8746(2008)101[327:swcado]2.0.co;2.
  4. ^ a b c Stubbs, Allen. E. "An identification guide to British Clusiidae". Proceedings of the Transactions of the British Entomological Natural History Society. British Entomological Natural History Society. 15 (3/4): 89–93. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  5. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2007). "Revision of the genus Phylloclusia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiinae)". Canadian Entomologist. Entomological Society of Ontario. 138: 778–792. doi:10.4039/n06-049.
  6. ^ McAlpine, D.K. (1960). "A review of the Australian species of Clusiidae (Diptera: Acalyptrata)". Records of the Australian Museum. 25: 63–94. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.25.1960.656.
  7. ^ a b Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2007). "Redefinition of the genera Clusiodes and Hendelia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiodinae), with a review of Clusiodes". Studia Dipterologica. 14: 117–159.
  8. ^ a b c d e Czerny, P. Leander (1903). "Revision der Heteroneuriden". Wiener Entomologische Zeitung. 22: 61–108.
  9. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2006). "Revision of the New World Craspedochaeta Czerny". Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 1391 (1): 1–101.
  10. ^ a b Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A.; Fu, J.; Wiegmann, B. (2010). "Phylogenetic analysis of the druid flies (Diptera: Schizophora: Clusiidae) based on morphological and molecular data". Insect Systematics & Evolution. 41 (1): 231–274. doi:10.1163/187631210x500628.
  11. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2007). "Revision of the New World Heteromeringia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiodinae)". Beiträge zur Entomologie. Deutsche Entomologische Institut. 57 (1): 37–80.
  12. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2008). "Revision of the temperate South American genus Apiochaeta Czerny, 1903, with synonymy of Alloclusia Hendel, 1917 (Diptera: Clusiidae)". Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 101: 1–33.
  13. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2007). "Revision of the North American Sobarocephala (Diptera: Clusiidae, Sobarocephalinae)". Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario. Entomological Society of Ontario. 138: 65–106.

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Clusiidae: Brief Summary
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File:Paraclusia tigrina - lekking behaviour.ogvPlay media Clusia tigrina engaged in lekking behaviour

Clusiidae or "druid flies" is a family of small (~ 3.5 mm), thin, yellow to black acalyptrate flies with a characteristic antenna (The second segment of the antennae has a triangular projection over the third segment when viewed from the outside) and with the wing usually partially infuscated. They have a cylindrical body. The head is round, the vertical plate reaches the anterior margin of the frons and the vibrissae on the head are large. The costa is interrupted near subcosta and the latter developed throughout length. Larvae are found in the bark of trees, the flies on trunks.The larvae are notable for their ability to jump. Males of many species in the subfamily Clusiodinae have been observed while engaged in lekking behaviour. There are hundreds of species in 14 genera found in all the Ecoregions, although most species occur in tropical regions. The type genus is Clusia Haliday, 1838.

license
cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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wikipedia EN
ID
b65a7400c6b87669ce7c0a387e469087